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autism case studies by Coffey, Kenneth M, Obringer, S John. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a mother and pomona essay 2014 father raising their two children with autism. This single case study revealed the defend, supports involved in educating and socializing school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder. Supplement Essay 2014! The case study indicated that the parents agreed on a majority of format issues and clearly pointed out that their major area of concern was education. Pomona 2014! Implications are put forth for buy essays ireland accommodating students with autism in pomona supplement essay 2014 inclusive settings with suggestions for future research. In 1943, Leo Kanner first described a discrete set of behaviors observed in children as autistic disturbance of affective contact (Kanner, 1943, p. 217). He noted that the most notable features of this condition were obsessive and stereotypic behaviors accompanied by echolalia. Autism remains one of the true mysteries of medical science and psychology.

In fact, Kirk (2000) refers to it as one of the least understood disabilities (p. 445). To add to the confusion, authorities disagree on defend dissertation whether autism is pomona a distinct disability or a subgroup of australia multicultural another exceptionality (Smith, 2001). Until 1981 autism was included in the definition of supplement severe emotional disturbance, but in that year the secretary of education moved autism from the federal definition of 'severe emotional disturbance' to the category of Other health impaired' (Ysseldyke Algozzine, 1995, p. 433). This controversy over whether autism is a distinct disability may exist because individuals with autism exhibit characteristics which cross a number of disabilities (e.g. other health impaired, mental retardation, communication disorders). The characteristics of these varying disabilities include language disorders (echolalia), emotional disturbance (unusual responses to people or attachment to defend, objects), and mental retardation (approximately 70% of persons with autism have cognitive disorders). In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980) first included autism as a separate and distinct disability (Tanguay, Robertson, Derrick, 1998). Until 1997, autism was not included as a distinct disability category under the auspices of the Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA). For the previous 16 years it was categorized as other health impaired. With the pomona supplement essay, 1997 amendments to IDEA (P.L. 105-17), autism was defined as: a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and non-verbal communication and format social interaction usually evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movement, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual sensory experiences (NICHCY, 1997, p. 1). Most recently, there has been a major move to change from the dichotomy of autistic- nonautistic to a recognition of a continuum referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Billstedt, 2000). This continuum ranges from individuals manifesting relatively mild autistic- related disorders such as Asperger's Syndrome to individuals manifesting autism with mental retardation and pomona supplement essay other relatively severe symptoms (Scheuermann Webber, 2002). The incidence of autism spectrum disorder in the United States is reported to be approximately 4.8 per 10,000 with a consistent excess of males to females, up to a 4:1 ratio (Szatmari, Jones, Zwaigenbaum, MacLean, 1998). Some researchers believe autism spectrum disorder to related thesis, be much more common, approaching half a percent of the general population of supplement essay children (Billstedt, 2000). Before Or After Introduction! Occasionally, a family may have multiple children with autism spectrum disorder, however, this phenomenon is rare.

Less than 3% of the siblings of children identified with ASD also have the supplement 2014, disorder (Bolton et al., 1994). Australia Essay! The purpose of this single case study was to pomona, investigate the school and community supports that led to intellectual skills, the inclusion of two siblings with ASD. This case study seemed to be the most appropriate qualitative method to obtain in-depth information about this family. Merriam (1998) noted that a qualitative case study is an supplement essay, intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single instance, phenomena, or social unit (p. 21). The older child in the family is a 14 year old male attending the 8th grade with well above average intelligence and mild to moderate autistic tendencies with no other health problems. This young man is quite proficient academically and has competed more than once in the National Spelling Bee, annually held in Washington, DC.

He is a straight A student with exceptional mathematical abilities, but struggles with psychosocial skills, especially interpersonal relationships. He has few friends and spends a significant amount of time in solitary activities. His parents have encouraged him to participate in sports and community organizations, but efforts in this area have proven unsuccessful. The younger child in the family is an review literature, 11 year old female attending the 4th grade with below average intelligence who has moderate to severe autistic tendencies with no other health problems. She struggles both academically and socially. She requires a significant level of support to succeed in supplement school, and even with these supports, remains below grade level. However, she has basic self-care skills (eating, dressing, hygiene) and relatively good skills in reading recognition and math computation.

This student has much more difficulty in multicultural society reading comprehension, math reasoning, and both the social and functional use of language. While she will respond to supplement essay 2014, the social overtures of others, she does not initiate any social interaction. Like her sibling, she has few friends and thesis statement before spends a significant amount of time in solitary activities. The father is a 46 year old engineer who is a long-term employee of a federal power agency. He has only a few friends and prefers to 2014, spend his leisure time at home. He has a somewhat introverted personality and review thesis is marginally involved in one community organization. Pomona Supplement 2014! The father reports that he has not sought out dar essay format extensive information on pomona supplement autism, preferring to leave that role to his wife. The mother is a 47 year old homemaker who is extensively involved in advocating for her two children. After the realization that both children had autistic tendencies, the thesis before or after, mother decided to have no more children. She sees her full-time role as advocating for her own children and online consultation with other parents who have children with ASD.

The mother stays abreast of developments in the field of autism, continually reading books on the subject and 2014 occasionally traveling to attend workshops. Due to the fact that the family resides in a relatively small community, there is review literature thesis no specific advocacy group or physician specializing in autism. Supplement Essay! Therefore, the buy essays, mother has been involved in related support groups, such as ARC. As an advocate, she spends considerable time in pomona the local school, facilitating the is a multicultural, inclusion of her children. The mother spends an hour at the school each day tutoring her daughter during study hall.

Prior to the beginning of each school year she devotes a significant amount of pomona supplement essay 2014 time to observing various classrooms to determine the related, most suitable teacher and classroom climate for her children. The family lives in pomona essay a relatively small university town in the southeastern United States with a population near 20,000. Of these residents approximately 65% are Caucasian, 30% are African-American, 4% are Asian, and 1% are Hispanic and Native American. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that 20% of the persons living in buy essays ireland this county live below the poverty level. The K-12 school in which the children are enrolled serves a total of 795 students with an average class size of 20 on a single campus. Supplement Essay 2014! It has a relatively small school staff which includes special services and buy essays online ireland the typical extracurricular activities. The school has a reputation for strong discipline and high levels of parental involvement. The investigators received approval from the university's Institutional Review Board and the family to conduct a thorough case study using a semi-structured interview format. The protocol was structured to pomona supplement, question each parent individually and australia is a society then as a couple.

The interviews covered such issues as genetic predisposition, family planning, psychosocial stressors, and social interactions, along with an extensive group of pomona questions on education and service delivery (see Appendix A). Dar Essay Format! The interviews were transcribed and reviewed by both investigators to insure accuracy. To determine emerging themes, the investigators examined the transcriptions from the pomona 2014, interviews with each parent and the interview from the couple together. A review of the australia society essay, data determined those areas in which parents showed consensus as well as areas in which the parents exhibited divergent views. Additionally, the pomona supplement 2014, investigators attempted to isolate those supports that led to successful inclusion in general education classrooms.

From an analysis of the separate interviews with each parent and the joint interview with the couple, the following issues emerged: Areas of Disagreement. The parents disagreed on just two major issues. Defend! (1) Different long-term educational goals for the younger, more seriously involved child. The mother was very firmly committed to this child receiving a standard high school diploma, while the father was less concerned about the high school diploma. The stated concern of the father was his daughter's overall happiness and well being. Pomona! (2) The existence of a family history of developmental disorders including autism, attention, learning, or mood disorders. The father reported no known family history of autism or other developmental disorders. The mother, however, stated that both extended families had a history of developmental and mood disorders. Areas of Agreement. The parents agreed on thesis statement introduction most items of inquiry during the interviews. Pomona Supplement Essay 2014! They concurred on: (1) The developmental history of the children.

The younger child, the intellectual skills, more severely affected, missed a number of early developmental milestones and was referred for testing prior to age 4. Concerns about the supplement 2014, older child did not arise until he approached school age. Related Thesis! (2) The family psychosocial stressors related to parenting two children with autism spectrum disorder. Pomona Supplement! Both parents agreed they faced considerable stress and provided detailed examples of specific psychosocial Stressors. For example, the husband wants his spouse to buy essays online, keep abreast of the advances in autism and advocate for the children. Conversely, the 2014, wife wishes he would share in this role. Additionally, the husband believes that he has suffered professionally dealing with the stress of having two children with autism spectrum disorder and must remain focused on his professional career. (3) The daily activities and routines of family life.

Both parents agreed that apart from church involvement the dissertation, family has few outside interests or social activities. Both children are comfortable with this passive style of social interaction. (4) The atmosphere within a small school was one feature that contributed to their children's success. The parents believed that a smaller school with a reduced pupil-teacher ratio provided more flexibility and essay 2014 a greater willingness to accommodate. For example, the parents requested and received preferential seating, modified testing, peer tutoring, extended time for intellectual assignments, and modified homework. Also, home visits by the teacher are encouraged. The small school with a single K-12 campus facilitated a smooth transition from grade to grade. (5) Those teacher characteristics that appeared to be most effective for essay 2014 their children. Both parents felt that a firm, but flexible teacher was optimal.

The parents and school administrator jointly select teachers based on teaching style and classroom climate. In addition, university practicum students from the special education program provide in-home tutoring in academic and advanced self-help skills. (6) The overall positive reaction of classmates and their parents to having children with autism in the general education class. As expected, there were some initial expressions of concern about the impact of the dissertation, younger child on the academic rigor of the pomona 2014, classroom (i.e. Dissertation! two phone calls from concerned parents). Pomona Essay! Following this initial period of adjustment, her peers and their parents have been generally supportive of her inclusion in the classroom. This support has been evidenced by buy essays, frequent social overtures from supplement, her classmates as well as peer tutoring. (7) The transition to adulthood and the likely level of independence obtainable. Both parents agree that the older child will be a college graduate with a professional career, although they recognize that he will have ongoing social difficulty that may be a limiting factor in employment and ireland other areas. The parents agree that the younger child will need some form of lifelong support (i.e. Pomona Supplement Essay! sheltered employment, supervised apartment, supplementary financial assistance). (8) Finding understanding physicians and dentists. A final area of agreement was the australia multicultural, difficulty in finding medical professionals who were willing to vary from their normal protocol in treating the children. As one example, the parents eventually located a physician who was willing to take off his white coat and tie and perform clinical observations and procedures while keeping a distinct physical distance from the younger, more seriously involved child whenever possible. Discussion and Implications.

The issues that emerged from this study lead to both educational and community implications. Schools and parents of children with autism spectrum disorder might find the following suggestions especially helpful: * Establish a working relationship between parents and administrators to match the personality and characteristics of prospective teachers to the student with autism spectrum disorder; * Encourage home visits by teachers to supplement, better understand family dynamics and appreciate the challenges faced by thesis, parents; * Schedule frequent parent-teachers conferences so both parents and pomona supplement essay teachers can reach agreement on buy essays ireland managing current social and academic challenges; * View small school size and unified campus (physical plant) as a strength versus a limitation; * Identify classrooms emphasizing peer group support for academic and social issues; * Utilize classrooms with a reduced teacher-pupil ratio; and. * Demonstrate a willingness to pomona supplement, be flexible concerning implementation of school policies (e.g. Skills! scheduling, homework, and testing). * Utilize sources of essay support available within the community, although the focus might not be specifically on autism spectrum disorder (e.g. ARC, previously referred to as Association for Retarded Citizens, Learning Disabilities Association, and Council for Exceptional Children); * Utilize university students from related literature, appropriate academic fields for a variety of pomona supplement essay 2014 support tasks including respite services, training in daily living skills, developing interventions or creative alternatives for particularly difficult situations, modeling appropriate behavior, and implementing a functional behavioral analysis; and. * Utilize the expertise of format a regional or state university (e.g. diagnostic services, academic tutoring, and behavioral strategies). Three limitations were noted in the present study. First, the investigation involved a single family and the issues they faced. Second, although both of these children were clinically diagnosed with autism, they may not be representative of other children with autism. Finally, the protocol investigated a limited number of factors when other significant dynamics may have been present. Implications for Future Research.

This investigation provides insight into pomona supplement 2014, the supports utilized by a family with multiple incidence autism. The relative rarity of this phenomenon would make this study difficult to replicate. However, a later follow-up of this unique family unit would be of great interest or if a similar family can be found, a comparative study would be insightful. Additionally, studies on the provision of services offered by small or single-campus schools to dar essay format, students with low incidence disabilities might be helpful to parents seeking necessary supports for their children. As with the present case study, the school appeared to be flexible and caring in providing an appropriate education to both of these children with ASD. Supplement! As inclusion is more frequently employed, this family might serve as one model of successful inclusive programming for online ireland children with autism. Although their disabilities were significant, the major issues for these two children were social and academic rather than cognitive. As mentioned previously, many children with autism face mental retardation as well as other major difficulties. Due to the rarity of multiple incidence autism, little has been written concerning the supports required by pomona essay 2014, a family with such challenges. A teacher or related service provider might not be inclined to picture a family with multiple incidences of autism as having the dar essay format, ability to pomona essay, function successfully in the community and school, but with multiple supports this appears to be the case. One can only speculate on the factors leading to relatively successful integration in the community and inclusion in the school for these children with ASD.

It appears that the high levels of supports played an australia society essay, integral role in this phenomenon. Families with multiple children with disabilities need various types of school and community supports depending on their unique circumstances. This case study found that the supports provided were appropriate for pomona supplement 2014 the functioning of this family academically and otherwise. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders HI. Washington, DC: Author. Billstedt, C.G.E. Related Literature Thesis! (2000). Autism and Asperger syndrome: Coexistence with other clinical disorders. Aacta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 321-330.

Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., Baiely, A., Rutter, M. Essay 2014! (1994). Dissertation! A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35 (5), 877-900. Kirk, S.A., Gallagher, J.J., Anastasiow, N.J. (2000). Educating exceptional children (9th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Supplement Essay 2014! Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Is A! Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Merriam, S.B. (1998). Qualitative research and pomona supplement 2014 case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. National Information Center on Children and Youth with Disabilities. (1997). Autism/ PDD, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning disabilities, traumatic brain injury. Available from NICHCY, P.O.

Box 1492, Washington, DC. Skills! Scheuermann, B., Webber, J. (2002). Autism: Teaching does make a difference. Supplement Essay 2014! Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson. Smith, D.D. (2001). Introduction to special education: Teaching in an age of opportunity (4th ed.).

Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Szatmari, P., Jones, M.B., Zwaigenbaum, L., and related review MacLean, J.E. (1998). Genetics of autism: Overview and new directions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28(5), 351-368. Tanguay, P.E., Robertson, J., Derrick, A. (1998).

A dimensional classification of 2014 autism spectrum disorder b y social communication domains. Journal of the intellectual, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(3), 271-277. Ysseldyke, J.E., Algozzine, B. Essay 2014! (1995). Special education: A practical approach for teachers (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Kenneth M. Coffey, Professor.

S. John Obringer, Professor. Department of dar essay format Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Special Education. Pomona Essay! Mississippi State University. Copyright Project Innovation Summer 2004 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved.

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My Ed.D. thesis proposal: What does it mean to be ‘digitally literate’? I submitted the second version of my Ed.D. thesis proposal a while back now. Essay! I had to dissertation, re-submit as I failed the first submission. This was a bit of a shock to the system, never having failed anything academically before. It was actually partly my supervisor’s fault – who has now left the supplement essay 2014, University of Durham and buy essays online doesn’t have a doctorate himself… :p.

I was advised to wait until I had the pomona supplement essay, marks back for the thesis proposal before posting it on my blog. Upon reflection, I could see this was a sensible thing to do, so now I’ve heard back and I’ve passed I’m going to post it in australia multicultural, its entirity. I received 63% for the following, which isn’t disastrous but less than I would have hoped for. Because it’s my second submission, however, the mark that’s recorded is 50%. At the end of the day, I’m not overly concerned: my Ed.D. overall is pass/fail… #128578; The comments on pomona supplement essay 2014, the following were: This is a solid proposal which provides a detailed reflection of the relevant literature in which the proposed study is to be grounded. Although covered in less detail than the dissertation, literature section, the proposal provides an appropriate methodological base for the research. The proposal suggests a cross-cultural component and it is important in this context that similarities as well as ‘discrepancies’ are identified and 2014 that the study does not become unmanageable.

In general this is defend a good solid proposal. The proposal itself follows after the ‘tag’ cloud that is indicative of supplement, its contents (courtesy of intellectual skills, TweetClouds) What does it mean to be ‘educated’ and ‘digitally literate’? The impact of ICT and the knowledge society upon essay 2014, education in defend dissertation, the 21st century. Society is changing at an unprecedented rate. The nature of the family, how we connect with other people, the ways in which our leaders are held accountable, and the extent to which the media controls our lives are fundamentally different even from supplement, 25 years ago. Members of every culture and society have the world of everyday experience mediated by technologies, traditions and cultural norms or expectations. (Petrina, 2007:168; Achterhuis, 2001:71) The technologies which mediate life in the 21st century in first-world nations are powerful communicative devices and are developing at review literature, an incredibly fast pace. This means that the way in which the pomona essay 2014, world is understood and presented to individuals can be somewhat incoherent and is certainly very different from that of previous generations. In turn, unless they are willing to change to adapt to the needs and future requirements of introduction, learners, schools are in pomona supplement essay, danger of becoming, ‘even more quaint and shaky against the backdrop of technology.’ (Smith Curtin, 1998:227) Schools are the link between generations: they bridge the online ireland, gap between the knowledge and skills of the previous generation and that of the next generation. Pomona Supplement! One of the roles of educational institutions is to ensure that young people have the knowledge and skills for the world of work.

But education is not simply about preparing young people for their working life, as evidenced by recent ‘personalising learning’ initiatives that have emerged across the western educational landscape. There remains something more holistic about the education system that aims at producing ‘educated’, ‘literate’ citizens. As we discover more about how the brain works and about how students learn best, so what we mean by an ‘educated’ person changes. Technology also has a role to play in this, as for some educational thinkers it to a great extent redefines what it means to be ‘literate’. Schools, therefore, are increasingly investing in and exploring educational technology in an attempt to ensure that they remain relevant to the world outside the school gates. Whilst there is a top-down drive to adopt such technologies, however, their pedagogical use is still being worked out at a grass-roots level. With society in a state of flux and intellectual skills of radical transformation schools need to find a way of bridging the gap between their traditional role and the technologically-mediated world in which their pupils now inhabit.

It is an open problem about which Jacques Delors (Delors, 1996a:172), president of UNESCO wrote in 1996: …there is pomona supplement a decisive issue at stake here, and it is important that schools and universities should have a central place in a profound change that is affecting the whole of society. There is no doubt but that individuals’ ability to access and process information is set to become the determining factor in their integration not onlyinto the working environment but also into their social and cultural environment. The concept that shall be discussed in what follows as ‘digital literacy’, therefore, would seem to be a key one for format, schools and individuals who want to play an active role in the ‘knowledge society’. There is a tension at the heart of school life between preparing students for an uncertain future whilst continuing traditional notions of what constitutes a school. Successfully resolving this tension should result in supplement essay, educational institutions producing ‘educated’ young people who are ‘literate’ within the domains they shall operate, both now and in the future. Dissertation! However, due to the scale of social change witnessed over the last 25 years, coupled with the almost exponential rate of technological development and uptake, resolution of this tension is becoming increasingly difficult for pomona supplement 2014, schools.

What does an literature thesis, ‘educated’ person look like in the 21st century? Are traditional literacy skills enough? Although some work has been done in attempting to make a traditional curriculum more flexible, coherent and relevant, few explicit identifications of what constitutes a literate, educated person in the 21st century have been made (McCain, 2005:49). Having a clear focus as to what it means to have the requisite tools for life in essay 2014, the 21st century – to be ‘digitally literate’ – would enable schools to synthesise the traditional and the new more effectively. Whilst definitions are both historically and culturally situated (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8), it should be possible to identify common usage, at least implicitly, of what educators and defend dissertation policy makers mean when they talk about being ‘educated’ – and therefore ‘literate’ in a 21st century sense. In contrast to the view satirised by Charles Dickens’ character of Gradgrind in Hard Times (‘Teach these boys and pomona supplement 2014 girls nothing but Facts’), to be ‘educated’ in dar essay format, the 21st century is a more slippery idea to pin down. There is pomona supplement little agreement as to what the purpose of education is in the 21st century. Some thinkers on thesis or after introduction, the topic are instrumentalists, seeing education as a means to pomona 2014, a (usually vocational) end, whereas others stress the importance of the process. Likewise, as has been argued extensively, (Barton Hamilton, 2000:11-12; Muller, 2000:56; Delors, 1996b:85) ‘literacy’ ranges across domains and applies to much more than reading and pencil-and-paper writing. Agreement upon before, what it means to be a ‘literate’ person, therefore, is also difficult to find.

To have some clarity as to essay, what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ will help move on the debates taking place at all levels in the western education system. Instead of these conceptions being an updated version of what was learned at buy essays online, school by the previous generation, there needs to be a thorough review of the needs of both students and the workplace. An active examination of the possibilities offered by new (educational) technologies should inform this review in order for pomona supplement essay 2014, it to be as forward-looking as possible. The views of stakeholders and interested parties need to be analysed and compared in order to discover motivations, potential conflicts and areas of agreement. Once these notions of what it means to review literature, be ‘literate’ in the 21st century have been resolved then the way forward for education to move towards new pedagogies and ways of pomona 2014, working should become clear. At present, however, the lack of clarity as to thesis before, what it means to be ‘digitally literate’ means that teachers are subjected constantly to new proposals and reforms that aim to resolve the supplement essay 2014, tension between the old and the new. Without an idea of the purpose of education, it would seem that these efforts are ultimately doomed to fail. To explore claims that traditional notions of literacy are not sufficient for 21st century education.

To analyse policy documents from defend, government down to school level in order to discover the level of supplement 2014, coherence in evidence. To highlight discrepancies between pedagogy and practice regarding educational technology in schools. To survey briefly the intellectual, situation in other countries regarding digital literacy skills. To come up with workable, 21st-century definitions of supplement essay 2014, what it means to before introduction, be ‘digitally literate’ (i.e. literate in the 21st century) Despite Tony Blair’s famous commitment to ‘education, education, education’, the pomona, Labour government in skills, the United Kingdom is notoriously cagey when it comes to defining and supplement setting out the purpose(s) of education and schooling. Implicit in many of the pronouncements made and reforms undertaken is a focus upon the financial well-being of the individual, and therefore the nation. Achieving ‘economic well-being’ is even enshrined in the compulsory Every Child Matters agenda to is a multicultural society essay, be implemented by schools (HMSO, 2003). Leaving aside the pomona 2014, use of education as a vehicle to economic prosperity, however, at least one of the purposes of schooling must be to produce ‘educated’ young people. What is meant by an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century, however, is difficult to define. In the past this was much more straightforward, defined by dar essay the educational elite.

Today, however, even leading educational thinkers such as David Carr (2003:11-12) have difficulty in pinning down a notion of pomona essay 2014, what it now means to be ‘educated’: The best we can so far say is that to be educated is to come to appreciate or value for their own sake the non-instrumental or teleological (intrinsically valuable) features of those forms of knowledge, understanding and skill for which a reasonable educational case has or can be made. Just to have studied or have some knowledge or skill, however, does not make one educated. One must be able to communicate one’s learning in a meaningful way and put it into practice. Carr argues that the notions of skills, ‘education’ and ‘schooling’ need to be untangled (Carr, 2003:15,134), much in the same way that clarification needs to be sought over the difference between being ‘educated’ and being ‘literate’. With the multiplicity of ways in which knowledge can be communicated in the 21st century comes new literacies to pomona essay, be able to transmit and receive knowledge in these new ways. It has been fashionable of late to format, ascribe to ‘literacy’ those characteristics that would have traditionally gone under the guise of being ‘educated’. (Delors, 1996a:174; Snyder, 2002:181; Rodriguez Illera, 2004:49-50) Literacy, with the emergence of new domains of application such as ‘computer literacy’ and ‘visual literacy’, has enjoyed an 2014, elevation in defend dissertation, status. From being seen originally as being able to pomona supplement, read and write or as a means to gaining an education, it is now widely regarded as an end in itself. Defend Dissertation! An understanding of what it means to be ‘literate’ in the 21st century should lead to a greater understanding of what it means to supplement essay, be ‘educated’, if indeed the latter is something over and above the former. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the adjective ‘literate’ means, ‘acquainted with letters or literature; educated, instructed, learned.’ To many educational thinkers, however, this is an outdated definition.

In 1958 UNESCO defined literacy as ‘the ability of an individual to intellectual skills, read and write with understanding a simple short statement related to essay, his/her everyday life.’ The difficulty with both these definitions is that they categorise people as either literate or illiterate allowing for no shades of grey. Literacy is defined on statement or after, a ‘macro’, global level without an understanding of literacy within a given domain or for a specific purpose. There is no scope with these definitions to be able to describe an individual as literate when it comes to pencil-and-paper-based reading and writing, but almost ‘illiterate’ when dealing within a domain mediated by supplement 2014 technology. Understood broadly, literacy can be an elusive human construct: it means different things and involves different skills depending upon the culture and time period within which an related review literature, individual operates. Pomona Essay 2014! Whilst in the western world ‘literacy’ has traditionally meant the ability to society, read and write with pencil and paper, this makes a nonsense of societies with oral traditions and records. Postmodern educational thinkers have therefore attempted to essay, deconstruct ‘literacy’, understanding it to consist in many different ‘literacies’. The main stimulus to this, as Kellner (2002:163) attests, is the widening use of statement or after, technology in society: As technological convergence develops apace, individuals need to combine the skills of pomona supplement 2014, critical media literacy with traditional print literacy and new forms of multiple literacies to related literature, access and navigate the new multimedia environments. This depends on an enlarged view of literacy, one that goes beyond the mere functional skills set out in UNESCO’s 1958 definition.

Literacy becomes ‘gaining the skills and supplement knowledge to read and interpret the related literature thesis, text of the world and to successfully navigate and negotiate its challenges, conflicts, and crises,’ (Kellner, 2002:157) ‘the application of… knowledge for specific purposes in specific contexts,’ (Scribner Cole, 1981 – quoted in pomona supplement, Rodriguez Illera, 2004:51), a ‘set of social practices’ that are ‘historically situated’ (Barton Hamilton, 2000:8,13). Literacy in the postmodern view is a fragmented notion: contextually dependent and culturally constructed. New literacies are being formed all the time (Reilly, 1996:218). This has led to the compartmentalisation of different forms of australia is a multicultural essay, literacy such as ‘computer literacy’, ‘visual literacy’, and ‘critical media literacy’ which served to demonstrate how, for example, an extremely literate person on pomona supplement, the traditional view could be ‘illiterate’ when it comes to communicating with the aid of format, technology. Whilst the postmodern deconstruction of literacy has been useful for purposes of clarification, something about the original holistic meaning of pomona supplement, ‘literacy’ has been lost. Literacy is before or after reduced to a science, as training within a given domain. Pomona Essay 2014! There remains something of a binary distinction between those who are literate within a domain and those who are not.

UNESCO’s most recent definition in its 2004 position paper (UNESCO, 2004:13) recognises and addresses the limitations of intellectual, both its own 1958 position and that of postmodern thinkers: Literacy is the ability to essay, identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and statement or after compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and pomona supplement 2014 wider society. This definition is an intellectual, Hegelian-type synthesis of the supplement essay, original, 1950s holistic definitions of dissertation, literacy, and its more fragmented definition under postmodernism. Literacy is a process, not a state (Rodriguez Illera, 2004) and as such underpins abilities within a given domain. It is better, therefore, to pomona essay 2014, talk of someone having or lacking literacy skills within the skills, domain of digital technologies, rather than ascribing to them a state of being ‘digitally literate’ or ‘digitally illiterate’. Shades of grey within each domain are recognised which build towards an overarching global ‘literacy’. As evidenced above, recent definitions of what it means to be ‘educated’ by those in control of education in the UK are hard to come by. Pomona Supplement 2014! Elsewhere in the western world they are more forthcoming, however.

A representative statement is format enshrined, for example, in the definitions set down by supplement essay 2014 Michigan State University as part of its VISION 2004 reorganisation: An educated person is someone who has learned how to acquire, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, understand, and communicate knowledge and information. Thesis Statement Before Introduction! An educated person has to develop skills that respond to changing professional requirements and new challenges in society and the world at large. He or she must be able to take skills previously gained from serious study of one set of problems and apply them to pomona essay, another. He or she must be able to locate, understand, interpret, evaluate, and related literature thesis use information in an appropriate way and pomona essay 2014 ultimately communicate his or her synthesis and understanding of australia is a essay, that information in a clear and accurate manner. That is to say that being an pomona supplement, ‘educated’ person involves taking skills and knowledge from one domain and applying them to another, as well as making links between areas of knowledge and keeping up to date with developments within one’s field and those which affect it. This definition appears to have more in common with traditional conceptions of wisdom than it does with those of literacy (Town, 2003:54). Put simply, becoming literate can be thought of as acquiring the skills to related, be able to pomona essay 2014, participate in before, the discourse of a particular domain, whereas becoming educated is to be able to range across domains and synthesise the essay 2014, knowledge that has been gained.

The domains of knowledge within educational schools have traditionally been subject-based. Teachers are teachers of one or more specific subjects and the knowledge, if not the skills, learned are particular to that domain. Australia Multicultural! However, as Muller (2000:2) states, knowledge is intrinsically social – which means that the boundaries and constituent elements of domains of knowledge are socially determined and defined. As a result, literacies change as societal definitions of domains of knowledge change. We view knowledge within a given domain through the lens of current literacies (DiSessa, 2000:65) meaning that what an individual can know and understand is limited by and dependent upon pomona, their use of semantic and technological tools.

Limiting the ‘micro-literacies’ that make up the more holistic view of literacy (‘macro-literacy’) is to limit the thesis before or after introduction, ability of the individual to access some of the supplement essay 2014, knowledge within a given domain. For example, using the ireland, ‘micro-literacy’ of familiarity with some digital technologies could allow Geography students to communicate in real-time with other students around the world. The knowledge they would gain from this would be of a different order from that which they could construct from the inputs of pomona essay 2014, teacher and textbook. Each ‘micro-literacy’ the students develop counts towards a more global Geographical ‘macro-literacy’. In turn, this would feed into an ever-higher ‘macro-literacy’ that enables the student to function in the world they inhabit. To be ‘educated’, therefore, could be understood as making links between various domains, which in turn depends upon both micro- and macro-literacies. Macro-literacies cannot be developed without first developing micro-literacies.

If knowledge is information contextualised within a given domain, and intellectual domains are dependent upon cultural and societal factors, then knowledge is affected by pomona supplement essay 2014 the rate of change of a society. Intellectual Skills! When the rate of societal change and technological innovation is reasonably slow – or at least relatively stable – educational institutions are able to predict what an educated person will look like in essay, ten to fifteen years’ time and prepare students accordingly. When the rate of societal change and technological innovation increases, however, these predictions become less accurate and strategies have to employed in order for educational institutions to intellectual, be able to function. In practice this means schools sitting on a spectrum somewhere between reactionary measures and furiously attempting to keep up with the latest initiatives. The difficulty that schools face, as Bourdieu (1988, cited in Snyder, 2002:178) notes, is that to transform the present one must have a secure grasp upon it. Given the ‘precariousness’ of contemporary life this is difficult to achieve: the ‘sociality’ of pomona supplement, knowledge means that domains of knowledge and of enquiry are constantly shifting. As a result educational institutions walk a tightrope between anticipating the world which their students will inhabit and introducing them to the knowledge and ireland skills that have been and are currently being used by society. The rate of change of society in the 21st century is being driven to a great extent by developments in technology. As the OECD report Learning to Change: ICT in Schools (2001:9) noted, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has changed the way we live and communicate with one another:

The ubiquitous presence and utility of ICT in modern life are having a significant impact on the way we live, and even on the notion of an educated person. It has led to the concept of the knowledge society – sometimes also called the learning society or information society. There is a widespread awareness that these developments have profound implications for education, and pomona supplement essay that schools must change, but as yet little detailed consideration of the skills, extent of the change needed and pomona the advantages that ICT can bring. The growth of the knowledge society and the pervasiveness of the technology represent a major challenge and a major opportunity for education. Education has a pivotal role to play in society as it is the link between past and future generations. In the review, past this link has been relatively easy to achieve, as the knowledge and skills useful to essay, acquire would vary only slightly within a generation. In the brave new world of digital technology, however, fundamental shifts in required knowledge skill sets and knowledge can occur several times within a generation. The most important skill one can have in a world where knowledge has a ‘half-life’ (Machlup, 1962) is to learn how to learn, to have a secure framework or scaffold upon which new knowledge can be grafted and discarded when necessary. This changing nature of knowledge has been described by review thesis Siemens (2006) as knowledge having ‘broken away from pomona supplement 2014, its moorings, its shackles’. Nowhere is related literature thesis this more evident than in the realm of pomona supplement essay 2014, educational technology where, using the tools already available in thesis statement introduction, most schools, learners across the world can communicate, interact and share.

The feeling amongst many writers uneasy with current western-style education systems is that tools which can (and in most cases should) be used to supplement essay, radically transform the way young people are educated in the future are being used to prop up the existing system. Tools which should be used to create new literacies are being shoehorned to supplement or gloss those of the past. Some writers talk of these digital tools being retro-fitted to outdated pedagogies to produce what could be termed ‘School 1.5’ instead of ‘School 2.0’. Thesis Statement Before Or After! Ironically, when these tools do not lead directly to huge learning gains, at least on such measures as school league tables and the like, it is the pomona 2014, tools themselves rather than the pedagogy and review literature education system which are blamed. Using relevant technologies is essential in pomona supplement essay 2014, 21st century education when it is the principal way by which the world is mediated to individuals; new pedagogies need to be constructed to use the tools and before or after introduction technologies invented and used outside of the pomona supplement essay 2014, school gate. When tools such as online read/write reference resources become more accessible than books and lecture notes, a shift occurs in buy essays online ireland, the way that learners conceptualise not only research, but the world itself.

As many authors have noted, we use technology to shape the world – but tools, technological or otherwise, also shape us (Burnett, 2002:145; Apple, cited in supplement 2014, Darder, et al., 2003:454; Demetriadis, et al., 2003:34; Provenzo, et al., 1999:40; Sutherland, et al., 2004:6) Although he could not have envisaged the online worlds available to us through the Internet, the review literature, effect of such tools on pomona 2014, learners is put perhaps most succinctly by Dewey (1925, quoted in Blacker McKie, 2003:235): A tool is a particular thing, but it is defend more than a particular thing, since it is a thing in which a connection, a sequential bond of nature is pomona supplement 2014 embodied. It possesses an objective relation as its own defining property. Its perception as well as its actual use takes the mind to other things. The use of educational technology, then, mediates the experience of learners with regard to education and to knowledge, but then so does the use of any tool. This process of human-created tools mediating human experience has an impact upon education: learners need to buy essays online, be able to use and shape these tools for pomona essay 2014, their own ends. Statement Or After! To be ‘educated’ involves being able to leverage semantic and technological tools across domains in order to make connections. To view the pomona 2014, possibilities and potential impact of educational technology requires a re-imagining of teaching and learning. Statement Or After Introduction! Even with a reconceptualization of what it means to supplement, be ‘educated’ and ‘literate’ in introduction, the 21st century, what does not change is the human element in learning, a thread that winds its way from the Socratic dialogues through to 21st century classrooms and (virtual) lecture theatres. Although there were fears in essay, the early 1970s when computers first began to be integrated into the mainstream that society would become dehumanised, the dar essay, former still serves as a tool to the latter.

In fact, using ICT is more than just a tool, as computers and other digital devices are flexible enough to adapt to the user and present them with many different communication and processing options. It is perhaps better visualised as a plethora of many intellectual tools. This nuanced view is unfortunately missing in much of the discussions surrounding educational technology and the use of computers in schools more generally. Lemke (2002:45) perhaps demonstrates the most balanced understanding of the ways that educational technology can be used to enhance learning. New technologies can often do the pomona supplement, job of simulating and talking about the typical activities of the is a multicultural, community far better than the average teacher in the average classroom.

Technologies will not, however, be able to substitute for direct participation, nor will they be able to pomona essay 2014, replace thoughtful guidance of students’ critical reflection and analysis, nor the emotional encouragement of achievement and creativity that live teachers provide. The difficulty is that the majority of intellectual skills, educators do not understand the revolutionary potential of ICT to their day-to-day teaching. What they see as akin to the television or overhead projector has, if not the ability to pomona supplement essay, ‘blow up the school’ (Papert (1984), cited in Cuban, 1986:72), then certainly the ability to help create an environment where learners can construct their own educational tools. Micro-literacies can be thought of as having the ability to create, or at least modify, tools in order to make sense of the knowledge within a given domain. Teaching youngsters how to use existing, outdated tools when a culture is undergoing radical change, is at best anachronistic (Claxton, 2002:23). Skills! Educational technology is not the answer to everything – a teacher’s pedagogical outlook and pomona 2014 teaching ability is still the biggest determinant factor in the quality of a learner’s education – but technology does allow different kinds of ‘ecologies’ to be created.

These are more likely to be focused on learning than on ‘teaching’. Format! (Burnett, 2002: 145) ‘Learning ecologies’ demand a different approach to education than has been possible previously, and is reflected in some of the ‘personalising learning’ agendas that have made their way into policy in some areas of western education. Instead of the pomona essay, school or teacher-centred model of learning that mass education has been built upon thus far, a learner-centred ecology has been mooted, especially by intellectual skills constructivists. The driving force behind this has been the possibilities opened up by ICT, which has driven curriculum change (OECD, 2001:15) and a rethink of what we mean by ‘literacy’. The difficulty lies in what Levin Riffel (1997:18) call the ‘logic of confidence’: schools can remain fundamentally unchanged so long as they are seen as embodying the right kind of supplement essay, activities and processes. Instead of taking steps to improve learning, tests are taken as a substitute. Progress is measured by teachers becoming adept at getting learners through examinations at increasingly higher levels. As politicians also have an interest in buy essays, these examination results, the whole system becomes somewhat of a charade. Given this barrier, the essay 2014, greatest bequest of ICT to education thus far may have been simply to point out how stale and boring traditional teaching actually is online ireland (Burniske Monke, 2001:258). Whilst educational systems remain in the straightjacket of results and are inextricably linked to a country’s political system, the possibilities of new technologies are likely to be directed towards existing hegemonic power structures. However, as Blacker McKie (2003:241) argue, ICT may provide the perfect, invisible, weapon: a tool presented as neutral, but actually fundamentally value-laden and used to perpetuate the position of the elite within society.

Whilst those in positions of control can manipulate the education system and the political process to continue their hegemonic power, then the potential of technology and other innovations are likely to be minimal. Whilst the use of technology is not inevitable, as a society we have made a decision to pomona supplement essay 2014, put it at the centre of our culture – much in the same way as we did with the format, automobile in the 1950s. (Balle, quoted in Eraut, 1999:89) To ‘jump off the wagon’ and consider a change of direction (Apple, quoted in Darder, et al., 2003:456) would involve a radical change in our civilization. Educators need, therefore, to use the tools available – especially those being used outside the school gates, the cultural experiences of the majority (Beavis, 1998:242). Supplement 2014! To do otherwise is to prepare young people for a reality that no longer exists – something that is perhaps best illustrated by the following tale told by Benjamin (1971, quoted in Tiffin Rajasingham, 2003:117), …a prehistoric tribe… decided to introduce systematic education for its children. Dissertation! The curriculum was specifically designed to meet particular survival needs in the local environment and so included such subjects as sabre-tooth-tiger-scaring-with-fire. But the climate of the region changes and supplement 2014 the sabre tooth tigers perish. Attempts to change the dissertation, curriculum to meet new survival needs encounter stern opposition. There will always be opposition to major reforms or a new direction: tradition and the status quo are powerful conservative forces.

But education in the 21st century is about using knowledge and making connections to create educated people in supplement essay, a sense relevant to today’s society. To be ‘literate’ is a relative notion depending both upon the domain within which one is dar essay format operating and the relevance of that domain to pomona essay 2014, contemporary life. Uniquely, in the 21st century we could be faced with a literacy problem despite over buy essays online 99% of people in western society being able to read and write. Whilst it will remain possible, at least for the time being, for individuals to be considered ‘educated’ without using ICT, these individuals will miss out on a large chunk of what it means to be ‘literate’ in supplement 2014, the 21st century. The micro-literacies they lack, involving the ability to connect and understand the society essay, world mediated by digital devices, will serve as barriers to communication and supplement essay 2014 expression. Technology introduces new ways for humans to communicate and create, introduces new micro-literacies that contribute to the wider ‘macro-literacy’ construct and, as a result, redefines what is meant by buy essays an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century. What does it mean to be an ‘educated’ person in the 21st century? Is there such a thing as ‘digital literacy’? How do ‘micro literacies’ feed into wider ‘macro literacies’?

What is the most appropriate learning theory for the 21st century? The proposed thesis will be non-empirical; policy documents, official reports, and scholarly works will provide the data required. Whilst this negates problems surrounding ethical treatment of research subjects, issues remain as to how to approach and make sense of the supplement, data. There are two main methodological paradigms to make sense of research data: the intellectual skills, quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. Essay! A purely quantitative approach assumes that objective descriptions of ‘reality’ can be made and that context-free generalisations are possible. Online! A purely qualitiative approach, on the other hand, denies any reality external to that created by the enquirer. On top of this resides dialecticism, a meta-paradigm dependent upon supplement essay, the first two – and Pragmatism, more an heuristic to guide research using these paradigms. To attempt to understand domains, societies and digital spaces within the confines of a positivist quantitative paradigm would seem to be overly-restrictive. Thesis Before Or After Introduction! When discussing the physical world it is possible to hold a post-positivist approach, acknowledging the reality of the external world whilst holding that our relations to it can only ever be subjective.

When discussing arenas that include digital spaces and connections, however, it is difficult to essay, see how even this nuanced view of the positivist project can be sustained. On the other hand, the literature, qualitative paradigm also seems to suffer from a poverty of descriptive power when it comes to the ‘blended’ digital/physical arenas that constitute the pomona 2014, ‘knowledge society’. People do agree upon the way the world is, connect meaningfully, and defend dissertation experience things in broadly similar ways. To take a blindly poststructuralist/postmodernist view and to insist on essay 2014, the subjectivity of the online ireland, external, therefore, would be to lose the ability to describe blended arenas and spaces in a meaningful way. A dialectical approach, meanwhile, whilst appearing attractive in pomona supplement essay, synthesizing approaches, seems teleological which is something to be avoided. Certainly given the radically democratic nature of the Internet, for example, no individual or group can direct the ends of the masses. At the same time, the technology itself does not dictate what it is used for; this depends upon the human user(s). Perhaps the skills, best approach to take, therefore, is the Pragmatic one.

This is a ‘multi-methodology’ that looks to supplement essay 2014, understand the related literature thesis, world from many viewpoints, therefore building up a more coherent picture. Pomona Supplement! This fits in dissertation, well with the idea discussed above of ‘micro’ and ‘macro’ literacies and also gives more of a picture of what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Pragmatism was originally formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce in the pragmatic maxim: Consider what effects, that might conceivably have practical bearings, we conceive the object of our conception to have. Then, our conception of these effects is the essay 2014, whole of our conception of the object. (quoted in Potter, 1996:94) By this, Peirce meant that concepts (and therefore knowledge statements) emerge from the effects of things such as tools and objects. Dar Essay! We need, therefore, to know how tools – digital and otherwise – are actually being used rather than how it was that they were intended to be used. Objects and concepts cannot be separated and considered to pomona supplement essay 2014, have a separate ‘reality’ from the sum total of the effects they have upon people and the environment. As a result, considering these effects from related review literature thesis, multiple points of view allows us to understand better those objects and supplement concepts. In terms of ‘digital literacy’ this means analysing how government pronouncements work in related thesis, practice, how policy documents translate into ‘reality’, and considering how representative are surveys and studies making claims about learners in the 21st century. The thesis, then, shall include data collection in the form of analysis of policy documents from pomona supplement, government down to grass-roots level.

An adaptation of the dar essay, eight-step process outlined by Johnson and Onwuegbuzie (2004) shall be considered as a model to move from pomona supplement essay, research question through to analysis. This, briefly stated is: Formulation of research question(s) Outline of purpose of mixed research Selection of research methodologies Data collection Data analysis Data interpretation Legitimation Final report with conclusions drawn. The data being collected in this non-empirical thesis comes from buy essays ireland, a multitude of sources. As a result, the essay 2014, Pragmatic method will allow for research from various backgrounds to be juxtaposed and review thesis synthesised where appropriate to give a bigger and more coherent picture.

Steps 4-6, data collection, analysis and interpretation will therefore be somewhat combined rather than in distinctive ‘steps’. Step 7 (Legitimation) will have to come at the same time as Step 3 (Selection of methodologies) to give credence to the entire project. This will result, therefore, in a five-step process: Formulation of research questions(s) Outline of purpose of research Selection and legitimation of research methodologies Data collection, analysis and interpretation Conclusion. This process within the Pragmatic framework will allow an understanding to be gained of supplement essay, how the many stakeholders, interested parties and pressure groups within the UK education system conceive of ‘digital literacy’ and related literature thesis what it means to be ‘educated’. A multi-methodological approach should ascertain the extent to which these conceptions are diverse. At times, ‘hard’ data – such as that provided by research from a predominantly quantitative perspective – will be analysed and at others a ‘thicker’, more descriptive perspective will be required. The thesis will not attempt to make general and sweeping claims about the whole education system but instead, where appropriate, highlight conflicts, disagreements and disparities in the wording and implementation of pomona 2014, policies surrounding digital literacies. This should inform what it means to be ‘educated’ in the 21st century. Finally, a comparison shall be drawn with other countries in terms of varying approaches to 21st century education and what it means to be ‘digitally literate’.

Difficulties shall certainly arise here in terms of buy essays online, ease of access to policy documents below governmental level. However, where it would seem that the policies and incentives evident in another country or culture would benefit the pomona supplement essay, educational system in England and Wales, these shall be highlighted. Those countries that it would be worth researching initially, it would seem, are Singapore (government commitment to australia is a society essay, digital infrastructure), the United States (for purposes of comparison), and another European country such as Sweden or Norway. This, whilst not the main focus of the thesis, should nevertheless give a flavour of global links, issues and concerns and situate the rest of the discussion in a context. The proposed thesis shall focus upon the concept of ‘digital literacy’, using a Pragmatic method in an attempt to understand the educational landscape within which it resides in essay, England and defend Wales. By comparing and contrasting research, governmental policy documents, the views of various groups within education and on the fringe, and what goes on in schools, a broad view of what literacy means in pomona supplement essay, the 21st century should be obtained. These shall then be compared and contrasted both internally and with other countries, especially economic competitors to the UK as a whole. Achterhuis, H. (2001) Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn (Indiana University Press) Apple, M. (2003) ‘Is the statement before or after, New Technology part of the solution or part of the problem in education? (in A. Darder, M. Baltodano R.D. Torres, The Critical Pedagogy Reader; London) Barton, D. Essay 2014! M. Buy Essays Online! Hamilton (2000) ‘Literacy Practices’ (in Barton, D., Hamilton, M. Ivanic, R. (eds.), Situated Literacies: reading and writing in context, London) Beavis, C. (1998) ‘Computer games, culture and curriculum’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Page to Screen: taking literacy into the electronic era; London, 1998) Blacker, D. J. McKie (2003) ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (in N. Blake, et al. (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education; Oxford, 2003) Burnett, R. (2002) Technology, Learning and 2014 Visual Culture (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: Communication, Innovation and Education in the Electronic Age, London) Burniske, R.W. L. Monke (2001) Breaking Down the dar essay, Digital Walls: learning to teach in a post-modem world (New York) Carr, D. (2003) Making Sense of Education: an introduction to the philosophy and theory of education and teaching (London) Claxton, G. Pomona Supplement! (2002) ‘Education for dar essay format, the Learning Age: A Sociocultural Approach to pomona 2014, Learning to Learn’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Cromer, A. Statement Or After Introduction! (1997) Connected Knowledge: Science, Philosophy, and Education (Oxford) Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and pomona supplement Machines: the classroom use of technology since 1920 (London) Delors, J., (1996a) Choices for education: the political factor, in thesis, J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France) Delors, J. (1996b) The Four Pillars of Education, in J. Delors (ed.), Learning:The Treasure Within (UNESCO, France, 1996) Demetriadis, S., et al. (2003) ‘ Cultures in negotiation’: teachers’ acceptance/resistance attitudes considering the infusion of technology into schools’ (Computers Education, 41, 2003) Dickens, C. (2007 ed.) Hard Times (London) DiSessa, A.A. (2000) Changing Minds: computers, learning, and literacy (London) Eraut, M. (1991) Education and the Information Society: a challenge for pomona, European policy (London) Friedman, T.L. (2005) The World Is Flat: the globalized world in the 21st century (London) Johnson, R.B.

A.J. Onwuegbezie (2004)’Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come’ (Educational Researcher, Vol. 33, No.7, 14-26) Kellner, D.M. (2002) ‘Technological Revolution, Multiple Literacies, and the Restructuring of Education’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Lemke, J.L. (2002) ‘Becoming the Village: Education Across Lives’ (in G. Wells G. Claxton (eds.), Learning for dar essay, Life in the 21st Century, Oxford, 2002) Levin, B. J.A. 2014! Riffel (1997) Schools and the Changing World: struggling toward the future (London) Machlup, F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in dissertation, the United States (New York) McCain, T. (2005) Teaching For Tomorrow: teaching content and problem-solving skills (Thousand Oaks, California) Michigan State University (2004), VISION 2004 statement (, accessed 3 October 2007 – cached at Muller, J. (2000) Reclaiming Knowledge: social theory, curriculum and education policy (London) OECD (2001) Learning to pomona supplement 2014, Change: ICT in review, Schools Okan, Z. (2003) ‘Edutainment: is pomona supplement learning at risk?’ (British Journal of Educational Technology, 34:3) Petrina, S. (2007) Advanced Teaching Methods for buy essays online, the Technology Classroom (New York) Postman, N. (1993) Technopoly: the surrender of pomona supplement, culture to intellectual skills, technology (London) Potter, V.G. (1996) Peirce’s Philosophical Perspectives (New York) Provenzo, E.F., et al. (1999) Computers, Curriculum, and Cultural Change: an introduction for teachers (London) Reilly, B. (1996) ‘New Technologies, New Literacies, New Patterns’ (in C. Fisher, D.C. Dwyer K. Yocam (eds.), Education and Technology: reflections on computing in classrooms (San Francisco) Rodriguez Illera, J.L. (2004) ‘Digital Literacies’ (Interactive Educational Multimedia, number 9 (November 2004) Siemens, G. (2006) Knowing Knowledge (, accessed 24 August 2007) Smith, R. P. Curtin (1998) ‘Children, computers and pomona supplement essay life online: education in a cyber-world’ (in I. Snyder, Page to Screen, London) Snyder, I. Dar Essay! (2002) ‘Communication, Imagination, Critique – Literacy Education for the Electronic Age’ (in I. Snyder (ed.), Silicon Literacies: communication, innovation and education in the electronic age, London) Stonier, T. C. Conlin (1985) The Three C’s: children, computers, communication (Chichester) Sutherland, R. Pomona Supplement Essay! InterActive project team, ‘Designs for Learning: ICT and before introduction knowledge in the classroom’ (Computers Education, 43, 2004) Tiffin, J. Supplement Essay! L. Rajasingham, (2003) The Global Virtual University (New York) Town, J.S. (2003) ‘Information Literacy: definition, measurement, impact’ (in A. Martin H. Rader (eds.), Information and IT literacy: enabling learning in the 21st century, London, 2003) UNESCO (2004) ‘The Plurality of Literacy and its Implications for Policies and Programmes (France) Wow Doug – looks pretty darn impressive to me. Also looks like a heck of a lot of work. Well done! How dare they fail your first submission – it was a masterpiece ;o) PS love the quotation in your new header – very amusing :oD. Thanks for the praise, Jenny and intellectual skills Lisa! #128578; @Lisa: This is actually the one of which you kindly agreed to proof-read a draft.

Have you noticed that the quotation in the header changes when you refresh the page? :-p. I subscribe to George Siemens elearningspace and received an email today, with a link to your blog. It’s come at essay, an opportune time, I’m considering concept papers for my ed.D. as well (at Nova Southeastern Uni). Dissertation! For a course leading up to my concept paper, I wrote papers on social networking, globalisation and technological progress as well as trends in education. ON another note, where I teach ( an International School in Kuala Lumpur) is moving towards at 1:1 program. Pomona Essay 2014! We’ve visted 3 different schools, where terms such as “21st century learners” and related thesis “21st century literacy skills” are mentioned, however not articulated. I loved your proposal, similar to the direction where I am heading. Hi Bron, glad you liked the proposal and essay 2014 you found it useful! #128578;

George Siemens has linked to this proposal, but for some reason it doesn’t seem to have shown up with a trackback… :-s. Thought your proposal was great. Defend Dissertation! I’m starting my research for my Ed.D in primary schools in the West of Scotland. My topic is very similar to supplement 2014, yours, ‘The impact of life on literacy practices: Digital Literacy in primary schools’. I’ll send you my first paper soon. I’ll send you my first paper soon.

That would be great Jane – thanks! It’ll be interesting to compare and australia essay contrast not only primary/secondary issues, but those of the Scottish/English systems. #128578; I#039;m leading an essay 2014, initiative at my universtiy that aims to define and deliver Digital Fluency as a core graduate attribute. 6 months into this work and people here are now getting really interested in the concept and its relevance to 21st century learning. Let me know if you#039;d be interested in this -happy to share what we#039;ve learnt so far. That sounds very interesting! With Jane at the Primary level, myself at the Secondary level and you at University level, we’ll have it all covered. Do get in touch via the contact form directly to buy essays online ireland, let me know what you’re up to. #128512; quite impressive, indeed. Pomona Essay! would like to know what the evaluators thought to be the missing 37 % ? I sympathise on the failure thing.

Check out my post on dar essay, the subject. I reckon this is a good topic, but potentially broad. There’s certainly a wealth of material on the blogosphere that you could use. There are quite a few analogies with functional literacy that can be drawn. First if all: your work looks very good. I don’t understand what your evaluators might want more… I’m working (and it will be very probable also part of my PhD..) on a project about the pomona supplement essay 2014, concept of “digital competence”. We are developing also tests and online other assessments. Maybe it could be useful share our works…

1. Pomona Supplement Essay! Is DL the same at all age levels (e.g., high school graduate vs college graduate)? 2. Is DL the same for all professions? 3. Who is to define DL — you? Pretty subjective and not very research based. 4. Put all research results in related, a table to see which one says what skill is needed. 5. Won’t your results be outdated almost by the time you’re finished? Thanks for the questions and pomona essay 2014 feedback. My response: 1. That’s certainly something I’ll be looking at. My gut feeling is that they’d all be on the same spectrum, yes.:-) 2. I’d need some counter-examples to prevent me simply saying ‘yes’.

In the same way that ‘literacy’ ranges across domains, so ‘digital literacy’ does, I think. 3. I’ll be looking at how others have defined digital literacy and whether definitions of other terms come close to what I’m getting at. I’ll be looking for consensus, common sense and tentative suggestions, not dogmatic statements about what I believe – so I hope it will be research-based and moving towards some type of objectivity. :-p. 4. I’m not entirely sure what you mean by this. Could you elaborate? 5. Perhaps, but hopefully not! Also, I’m undertaking the defend, Ed.D. for a variety of reasons. One of the strongest is for my development and so I interact with a wide range of literature and pomona supplement 2014 resources.

It’s as much about me grappling with issues as it is about contributing something original.:-) 4. If you’re going to research what others say about DL and dissertation what skills are included in those definitions, then it makes sense to pomona supplement essay, put that info into a table so that you can compare visually across columns/rows. I’m due to start my Ed.D next year. It’s really interesting and online useful to pomona supplement 2014, read your proposal. At present I’m considering focusing on the relationship between the thesis statement or after introduction, primary school and supplement parents (stakeholders) in light of the Ed changes since 1988. Your proposal is impressive.Incidentally,I just passed my Ed.D proposal.I am studying at the university of Sheffield.I am focusing on australia is a multicultural, boys and literacy.But I am curious:How can a non doctoral research supervisor manage the work of a doctoral student?

@Andre: Exactly! I haven’t been too impressed with the lack of urgency in finding myself a new one, either… #128577;

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Own It: 15 Inspiring Business Lessons from Oprah Winfrey. Oprah Winfrey is a self-made CEO worth about pomona supplement 2014 $2.7 billion. By most accounts, she’s the greatest black philanthropist in American history and the most influential woman in australia is a, the world. But she could have been just another talk show host. In 1984 she got her dream job: hosting a show called ‘AM Chicago’. Supplement 2014? Under her watch, it went from last to intellectual skills first in the ratings.

Two years later, the supplement program was being syndicated nationally as ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’. That’s when Oprah made the format decision that transformed her from an entertainer to an entrepreneur with a salary of $290 million a year. I’ll explain that decision and how you can adopt Oprah’s mindset in the 15 lessons below. 15 Inspiring Business Lessons from Oprah Winfrey. “I had no idea that being your authentic self could make me as rich as I’ve become. If I had, I’d have done it a lot earlier.” Oprah has been captivating audiences since she was three years old. Supplement Essay? Her local church had nicknamed Oprah “The Preacher” for review literature her ability to recite Bible verses. She had a knack for pomona supplement essay interviewing too. Back then, Oprah’s favorite game was to ask question of her doll and the crows on australia is a society the fence of her family’s property.

In other words, Winfrey was pretty much born to be a talk show host. If you feel like your job is a round hole and you’re a square peg, it’s time to make a change. #2 Respond to supplement essay 2014 Prejudice with Excellence. In the australia is a multicultural essay early 1970’s, Oprah landed a job as the first black female news anchor at pomona supplement essay, Nashville’s WLAC-TV. In 1976 Winfrey got an offer to anchor the six o’clock news in Baltimore. Ten years later, she was the host of The Oprah Winfrey Show – the number-one daytime talk show in America. Oprah knew all along that she wasn’t what TV producers wanted in front of the related thesis camera. As TIME magazine wrote, “In a field dominated by white males, she is a black female of ample bulk.” Knowing this, she could have given up. 2014? But Winfrey believed that she could overcome prejudice in her industry by statement before or after introduction being the best in pomona 2014, her industry:

“Excellence is the best deterrent to racism or sexism.” #3 If You Haven’t Fallen, You Haven’t Walked. “Go ahead. Fall down. The world looks different from the ground.”

Oprah, like mostly insanely successful people, doesn’t believe in failure. What most people think of as failure, Winfrey considers to australia essay be a new perspective, a new lesson, another stepping stone to her destination. This is the pomona advice she has for those afraid to fail: “Do the one thing you think you cannot do. Related Review Literature Thesis? Fail at it. Try again. Do better.” When Winfrey was co-anchoring the evening news in Baltimore, a botched hair treatment destroyed her hair and left her totally bald. Winfrey was devastated, knowing how important a good head of hair is for a news anchor. But she was also able to look on the bright side.

Years later, Oprah told Ms. magazine, “You learn a lot about yourself when you’re bald.” “Turn your wounds into wisdom.” Winfrey’s past is full of pomona supplement struggle – she grew up poor, was sexually abused as a child, and had a son at the age of 14 who died in thesis before, infancy – but she credits these events for giving her more capacity to pomona 2014 relate to the pain of others. I’m not going to tell you that “everything happens for australia multicultural society a reason,” but I can promise you that there are two sides to every coin. As Winfrey puts it, “every single event in life happens in an opportunity to choose love over fear.” School teaches kids that success is pomona essay, achieved by following instructions and by doing things the way they’re “supposed to be” done. But life and business teach a different lesson.

When Winfrey got her first job as a news anchor, she didn’t read the news in a dry, objective tone (as it was “supposed to be” read). She spoke with emotion and empathy, as if she was really experiencing what she was reporting. It was different, but audiences liked it – and so TV producers did too. After a few years of hosting ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’, she again wanted to challenge the intellectual skills norm. Winfrey explains: “I’m sick of people sittin’ in supplement, chairs stating their problems. Then we roll the videotape… then we have our experts on the topic… I’m in the ‘What’s next?’ phase of my career.” What was next for Winfrey was a different kind of dar essay format talk show, one that focused less on tabloid stories and more on broad issues like health, politics, and spirituality. Again, Winfrey’s willingness to forge her own path paid off: ‘Oprah’ ruled the day-time TV ratings until it went off the air in 2011. “Your gut is your inner compass. Pomona Supplement 2014? Whenever you have to consult with other people for an answer, you’re headed in the wrong direction.”

A few years ago, I was faced with a big life crossroads. I wanted to choose my path in the most rational way possible, so I made a weighted chart with all of the positives and negatives, analyzed the data, and defend determined the pomona supplement 2014 “right” choice. But something didn’t feel right. Oprah would have told me to go with my gut. She’s a strong believer in her instincts, saying they’re “where true wisdom manifests itself.” She’s made her big decisions (like deciding to retire from format, ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’) just based on a gut feeling. Instinct-based decision making is faster, less stressful, and more holistic. So if you’ve been making all of your decisions based on pomona rational analysis but you’re not 100% happy with the results, try following going with your gut for dissertation a change.

You can’t earn $2.7 billion without getting lucky at least once. Oprah understands that she’s been lucky, but she doesn’t see luck as pure chance: “I feel that luck is preparation meeting opportunity.” Every entrepreneur hopes to pomona supplement 2014 land a huge client or get a sudden spike in traffic, but if they’ve spent all their time hoping (and not preparing) then when that huge opportunity finally does come along, their business won’t be fully equipped to make the most of australia is a multicultural essay it. Instead wishing for luck, think about pomona essay 2014 what opportunity you would most like to receive in your life. Are you completely prepared to make the most of format it?

#8 Help Yourself by Helping Others. Not only has Winfrey started her own charity (Oprah’s Angel Network), she’s also given more of her own money to supplement 2014 philanthropic causes than any other performer in America (estimated at $303 million in 2007). The main reason that Oprah does this is so that she can make a positive impact in the lives of others, but she also has a selfish reason: “The surest way to bring goodness to yourself is to make it your intention to society do good for somebody else.” As entrepreneurs helping others, we demonstrate our value, encourage reciprocal help, build our networks, and create good karma. Doing good for others is doing good for yourself. “The more you praise and celebrate your life, the pomona essay 2014 more there is in buy essays ireland, life to celebrate.”

To celebrate two decades on pomona supplement national television, Winfrey thanked her hard-working staff by taking them and australia is a society their families on vacation to Hawaii (1065 people in pomona supplement essay, total). That’s a pretty big thank you. Oprah’s such a fan of intellectual skills saying thanks, that she’s created an app called the “Thank You Game” which aspires to thank a half a billion people. Feeling thankful for what we have and what other people have done for us is a great way to foster contentment in our lives. But Oprah also believes that it’s a key to finding success and pomona getting more of statement before introduction what you want in life: “Be thankful for what you have; you’ll end up having more. Essay? If you concentrate on literature what you don’t have, you will never, ever have enough.” The life of an entrepreneur is pomona supplement essay, hectic. As I type this sentence, I have about five very different tasks on australia society essay my to-do list and all of them probably should have been done yesterday. Oprah’s life is pomona essay 2014, even busier and related review literature much more stressful, which is pomona essay, why it’s so important for her to online have ways of pomona essay 2014 coping: “Sometimes in the thick of life, when my call list is longer than the day and people are lined up waiting for intellectual meeting after meeting, I just stop.

I still myself. And look at pomona, a tree. Intellectual Skills? A flower. The sun’s light reflecting off the pomona supplement window. And I remember love is available. I inhale it, exhale, and intellectual get back to work.” Next time you’re in supplement 2014, a crunch and you’re ready to throw in the towel, remember Oprah’s method for slowing things down and regaining your clarity and focus. If she can put on a daily television show while working as CEO of Harpo Productions, there’s a chance you can get everything on your to-do list checked off today as well. “Surround yourself with only people who are going to lift you higher.” Peer pressure is dissertation, a powerful thing. We take on the habits, attitudes, and tastes of the people we spend our time with.

I’ve read several places that your income will be the average of your five closest friends. But the more rich and pomona 2014 successful you are, the more important it is for you to is a essay have true friends. Oprah knows this well: “Lots of people want to pomona supplement ride with you in the limo, but what you want is someone who will take the bus with you when the limo breaks down.” “The big secret in online ireland, life is that there’s no big secret. Whatever your aim, you will get there if you’re willing to work.” Every successful entrepreneur who I’ve profiled is different, but they have one thing in common: each has worked hard to accomplish their goals. Oprah Winfrey pulled in a $290 million salary last year, but that figure represents 40 hour weeks piled on top of 50 hour weeks piled on top of 60 hour weeks.

#13 It’s Easier to Succeed While Doing What You Love. “You know you are on 2014 the road to success if you would do your job, and not be paid for it.” When you’re doing what you love, then you’re probably going to do a better job. You’ll also have more energy. Oprah says, “Passion is energy. Dar Essay Format? Feel the power that comes from focusing on what excites you.” “This is your moment. Own it.” Winfrey chose to take ownership of her show when she founded Harpo Productions. Being CEO of pomona essay Harpo empowered her to have control over intellectual skills, every aspect of her show.

It also opened the door for Winfrey to produce films, broadcast radio programs, and pomona 2014 publish a magazine. Oprah’s refused countless offers to endorse other company’s products. Everything that Oprah says, creates, or lends her name to, she owns. And she’s done it with virtually no outside investment: Winfrey owns 90% of online stock in Harpo. Not satisfied with just her own show, as of 2011 Winfrey has her own network. Naturally, its name is ‘OWN’ (Oprah Winfrey Network).

“We’re each responsible for our own life. No one else is or even could be.” I talk to a lot of people who have adopted a passive mindset in their life. Supplement Essay 2014? The way they see it, things just happen to before them and supplement essay 2014 all they can do is react. These people allow other people and external forces control them.

Oprah never thought that way. She once said, “I don’t think of myself as a poor deprived ghetto girl who made good. I think of myself as somebody who from an buy essays, early age knew I was responsible for pomona supplement essay 2014 myself, and I had to make good.” You’re the only person in buy essays online, control of 2014 your hands, your feet, and defend your brain. What you choose to do with them will make all the difference in the world. 7 Secrets To Writing A Best Selling Book That Sold 2 Million Copies!

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It's been so popular that over 60,000 websites now use it! inspiring and very useful post. thanks nick. I’m glad you find it useful. You join the ranks of millions who Oprah has inspired! True Inspiration. I am really impressed by dissertation Oprah. You are really great.

It is amazing to think of pomona supplement essay all she has accomplished. It’s doubly impressive to think of all the challenges she started out with. very captivating, inspiring and educative. This has to be one of my all time favorite articles! I loved every word! As entrepreneurs, we can all learn many lessons from Oprah, but her mindset was by far her biggest asset. Intellectual Skills? What do you think small business owners should pay the pomona essay most attention to out of these lessons? Hmmmmm… I would say “Make Your Own Luck.” I’ve had a few golden business opportunities slip through my fingers because I wasn’t totally prepared for them. Oprah is an inspiration to me, and I love these 15 Inspiring Lessons. Thank you for sharing. Thanks for reading.

Definitely agree with the point about australia is a multicultural choosing your friends wisely. If you hang out with unsuccessful people, you are probably going to be an unsuccessful person as well. If you hang out with people who have like mindsets and are looking to pomona essay 2014 achieve similar things as you, both of you can succeed together! Very true, Thomas. I love spending time with fellow successful entrepreneurs, hearing their perspective and australia is a the way they think. But remember too that it’s not just about spending time with successful people — if your friends are happy, kind, generous, and active, those traits will rub off on you as well. Hi OPRAH, you are my inspiration and pomona supplement my mentor. I watched your show everyday, I have learned a lot from you. Online Ireland? I want to pomona supplement essay 2014 walk in your footsteps and be the Oprah Winfrey of South Africa. I admire you giving spirit.

May God continue to bless you as you are a blessing to many. Nick, you killed it here again with this epic post. Oprah is such a great woman and considering she’s black, it shows hope for the black. Nick,you have been writing these kind of blogs about various people like Richard Branson,Steve Jobs etc .Can I have your permission to compile this as a book for the Indian market. I live in SFO but spend a lot of time in australia is a multicultural society, Chennai,India! Look forward to hearing from supplement, you. Wow. Great to know.

Thank you, Nick. Dar Essay Format? I’ve learnt a lot. I had always wanted to pomona essay read more about the related review literature thesis life history of Oprah and find if its true she was sexually abused. Today I got the truth. I am truly inspired by the fact that she has taken her disappointments as her strengths. Good story! I love it.

Very inspiring article. Be yourself, work hard, give back, choose your friends wisely, and essay 2014 never give up. These are all things that every one of us can learn from. I know I forget that people like Oprah weren’t born super successful, they had to work at it. As long as you a doing something that you love, then that shouldn’t be a problem. I wish there are women like Oprah in Malaysia. A woman who fights hard for her goal. Yes, we do have successful women entrepreneurs but they do not care about others as much as Oprah. They can talk but seldom walk their talk. Ever since Oprah have been an inspiration for format everyone specially for women.

These are essential lessons we can learn from her. Thanks for supplement 2014 sharing. Oprah is literature, definitely an impressive woman. If you look at everything she believes in, it’s easy to see how she became as successful as she is. This article inspires me to do more each day.

Love it! This post makes me feel inspired. I think I will create a Pinterest board called “The Wisdom of Oprah Winfrey”. Pomona Supplement Essay? I’ll take each of the quotations you used from her, turn them into little motivational posters, and defend share her wisdom with everyone. Thanks! i just to know about that oprah, so i can learn more from pomona essay 2014, you. and dissertation anytime i must like her. thank for sharing. Amazing.

I just LOVE Oprah. She inspires me to be a better person. Love this article.

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