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Outsourced - A Cross Cultural Analysis by Eni Will on Prezi
II: What Justifying an Evaluation Means. Justifying an Evaluation is interchangeable with the purpose of the review. An “evaluation” is meant to case determine the value of something, and thus should examine both positive and nonfiction negative aspects of the subject in a a critical manner. The job of a critical evaluator is to defend a judgment about the value, or worth, of something. Beyond book reviews, other examples of critical evaluations are movie and music reviews, product reviews, and so on. Some judgments can be positive and some negative, but rarely is a true critical judgment either all positive or all negative. If a subject is examined carefully, even the most beloved work of movie art has faults, and even the worst has positive attributes. The key is to examine the book closely, understand the cuny act essay, criterion, and avoid adding personal taste or emotion into the evaluation, and to address both positive and negative aspects of the 'Outsourced' case, book.
To be truly critical is to be neither purely favorable (a fan) or purely negative (a hater), but somewhere in between. A judgment, by definition, is a statement of essay value, of approval or disapproval, and people judge all the time. The term is 'Outsourced' often viewed negatively, especially when individuals judge other individuals. “You worry too much about your lawn, Bob,” is creative nonfiction a judgment that may be offensive to 'Outsourced' movie case study Bob, whether true or not. However, making sound judgments about works of art is a necessary task in order to maintain a clear set of standards for the given artistic genre and to understand those standards. The problem with many judgments, though, is that they are often based on personal taste rather than critical reasoning. When personal taste is creative used to 'Outsourced' support a judgment, there is really no call for support. No reasons are necessary or even possible when making a purely taste-based decision, and because of this, the judgments are almost always unsound when held up to critical questioning. Cuny Act Essay. For instance, when someone makes the judgment, “I hate country music,” they are offering a taste-based rather than a reasonable judgment. Movie Case. It is a mass-generalization, based purely on personal preference, that would be impossible to support by fair criteria.
It is science a judgment driven by study, bias rather than reasoning. I'll give you an example of an creative nonfiction unsound, taste-based judgment of my own: I don't like Aerosmith. 'Outsourced' Movie Case Study. You know, that band that's in the Rock and phd thesis science Roll Hall of Fame? That is a taste-based rather than reason-based judgment. It is judgment based purely on my own personal taste rather than on careful scrutiny of the music itself.
So, I can say, I don't like Aerosmith, and that would be a true judgment, but not a good one because it is purely personal-taste driven. It is based on what I like rather than necessarily what is good. Here is the band performing one of its smash-hits: Sorry. That was bad of me to purposefully equate Aerosmith with Bon Jovi. That's what's called a cheap shot.
That is an example of unfair evaluation. Here is a key point for fair evaluation: the quality of a work of art is independent of how I feel about it, and therefore it must be judged by case study, other methods in order to concerning john judge it fairly. In order to judge the band fairly, I would need to 'Outsourced' movie case first establish fair criteria, or standards, on which to judge the effectiveness of their music, and then carefully analyze the music itself to see if it lives up to those standards. If I do all of that, I would probably come to the logical conclusion that Aerosmith writes and performs at a high level of quality, for the most part, and that they have earned their spot in The Rock and cuny act essay Roll Hall of Fame for a reason: they are good. I may not like them, but by objective criteria/standards, they are good at what they do and deserve respect, even though I may still not choose to put them on my iPod. This may even be true of Bon Jovi: whether Scott Wrobel likes them or not does not in any way affect the movie case, quality of essay human john locke their work. Case Study. Thus, the quality of a work of art needs to creative be evaluated by methods other than personal-taste. The artistic quality of Aerosmith is independent of Scott Wrobel's personal feelings.
Based on sound analysis, they are objectively a good band, whether I like it or not, and I still do not like them even though I recognize that they are, in movie case study, fact, a good band. Conversely, judging the creative, quality of a work of study art based on good thesis statements its popularity, or to 'Outsourced' movie its winning of writing awards, is also unsound. Just because Aerosmith is in the Rock and 'Outsourced' study Roll Hall of Fame does not necessarily mean their music of high quality. Writing. Just because they have sold over 150 million albums does not necessarily mean their music is of high quality. 'Outsourced' Movie. But we'll get to cuny act essay popularity-and-awards-as-supporting-reasons later . . Case. . In this essay, you need to tell the reader “why” your judgment about the art is correct by offering strong support by analysis of the subject itself without personal taste clouding your judgment.
Personal taste has no place in a critical evaluation. So, j udgments are supported soundly, first, by establishing a base of “Evaluative Criteria”, which are sets of standards used to fairly judge the merits of a particular subject. IV: Determining Evaluative Criteria: Setting the Standards. In order to defend a judgment, there must be a basis for evaluation, or MANY bases for evaluation. If, for example, you look at the evaluation forms I use for evaluating student-essays, you'll see a number of specific evaluative criteria , or standards writers are held up to for a specific type of essay. Essay. Creating criteria creates a level playing field for all writers and evaluators by case, keeping the evaluator on an objective rather than “personal taste” level. The criteria do not measure what the reader personally “likes” in writing, but instead reflect the generally agreed upon writing essay principles that are necessary to evaluate the subject. As an example, I personally like reading essays that effectively accomplish dark humor elements, but you will not see a criterion on movie the essay evaluation rubrics for cuny act essay, dark humor because that is not a fair criteria. 'Outsourced' Movie Study. or standard, to expect of writers of academic essays. That would be a taste-based criteria.
Instead, we need to establish the phd thesis science, criteria by movie, first identifying the genre or category of the work of art, and know that the criteria we establish, however, has probably already been established by the experts of that genre. So, in mba statement essay, reading a book like Madness, it's important to now what the agreed-upon criteria are for determining the quality of a Memoir. We will work together as a class to identity the criteria for evaluation. The key in movie case, establishing criteria is to essay concerning understanding john locke choose the ones necessary to measure the 'Outsourced' case study, quality of the subject and of computer science that can be fairly applied to all subjects in movie, a given category , or genre. And establishing criteria does not mean making up your own. The criteria for creative nonfiction, evaluating any work of art, for all genres, have already been established by the experts in those areas; you just need to 'Outsourced' select the appropriate ones. In the writing software, case of evaluating book, keep on reading, and I will provide many of the criteria for you. But first, I want to 'Outsourced' movie explain how criteria work, and I'll explain by two analogies: establishing criteria in movies and in sports. For instance, not all movies have the same evaluative criteria. Is American Beauty judged by the same standards as The Matrix? Is Little Children held to the same criteria as Spiderman III? (Should Scott Wrobel update his movie references for concerning, the year 2013?) Though the movie study, subject area is the same -- movies -- the category, or genres, differ -- drama versus comedy, science fiction versus action/adventure -- and should therefore be judged by different sets of criteria, otherwise one genre movie may be unfairly judged.
Other movie genres, for example: family, independent, horror, classics, thrillers, dark comedies, romances, etc. And you can even break down the categories further: British comedies, cult comedies, romance comedies, etc. Take a look at the movie genres indexed on Netflix, for example. It's staggering. Once you identify the specific genre, you can begin establishing the cuny act essay, criteria for that genre. Here's a sports analogy: are athletes expected to 'Outsourced' movie case study meet the same criteria if one plays football and another baseball?
Are all baseball players expected to meet the same criteria? In baseball, what are the evaluative criteria for judging the writing software, worth of a second baseman? Are the criteria different for evaluating the worth of an outfielder. Some would say that a shortstop needs to 'Outsourced' movie case study field well and hit well, but those criteria are too broad and apply to understanding john all baseball players, which may not be fair to movie all baseball players. A more thorough set of criteria might be: Foot-speed/ Lateral quickness (move side to side fast). Fast reflexes and a good glove. Strong, accurate thrower. Coordinated feet (able to “turn” a double play).
Hit for average. The criteria for a first baseman are different: · Fast reflexes and creative writing a good glove. · Hit for power and average. The criteria, or standards , differ because the positions differ. Power hitters play first base because they are not quick and wily, but are bulky and built for the long-ball and sizeable targets for the fielders.
They are expected to drive in runners and catch throws; their offensive skills are weighed more heavily while the shortstop’s defensive skills are weighed more heavily. When a player meets or exceeds both defensive and 'Outsourced' case study offensive criteria, such as an Alex Rodriguez and Derek Jeter (I hate the Yankees but these two players are great), then there is a “quality” ball player – a subject who not only meets, but exceeds the standards. Still, with the goal being “to be fair”, would most coaches apply offensive and defensive criteria both to their middle infielders? No. There would be no more middle infielders. Pedro Florimon, or whomever the writing good, Twin's shortstop is nowadays, would be out of a job. Instead, he is valued for his speed, defensive skills, and ability to get on base and maybe even steal them. The difference between criteria and premises (main reasons) is like this: a criteria, for instance, to judge the category of science fiction films, is special effects.
Special effects, however, is not a reason to study support a judgment. It's just a criteria. If it were written as a reason to support a thesis, the thesis (underlined) might look like this: Star Wars Episode Four: A New Hope is a wonderful movie because it has special effects. It has special effects is a fact, not a premise. It's not arguable. Phd Thesis Of Computer. A premise needs to be arguable. Premises are based on the criteria, but make a judgment about the effectiveness of the criteria ; thus, premises are arguable in that, just like the thesis, they make judgments. Case Study. Thus, the above criteria stated as a true premise would look like this:
Star Wars Episode Four: A New Hope is a wonderful movie because it has tremendous special effects. Simply adding the word tremendous turns the criteria into a premise, which is a main reason to support the thesis (main point of essay); thus, the writing good, criteria is 'Outsourced' being evaluated for its worth, whether it's good or bad. And next it's the phd thesis science, writer's job to defend that premise with specific analysis of the scenes from the movie. Popularity is not a standard by which the quality of a subject can be judged, so don't use it as a premise in your evaluation. For instance, if you are evaluating the band Foo Fighters , and movie case study your main judgment is that they are one of the creative writing, most influential rock bands of the late 90's because of their popularity, you are not giving a reason to support the thesis. Their popularity is a fact, based on album sales and 'Outsourced' so forth, but it doesn't indicate WHY they are influential, and nor does it indicate that they are necessarily good. Brittany Spears sells even more albums than Foo-Fighters, but does that popularity necessarily translate into quality or influence?
Elvis Presley has sold more albums than any musician in the history of the world. Does that mean he's a good musician or merely popular? Also avoid stating humor or entertainment value as premises to support a judgment. Creative Writing Nonfiction. Why? In critically evaluating pop-culture subjects, entertainment is study a given. Essay Software. We need say nothing more about that.
Entertainment is pretty much the main purpose of 'Outsourced' case pop-culture. That's how it gets us into understanding the theater or makes us park in front of the tube for hours on end. We're entertained. The same goes with humor. Say for instance a student critically evaluates the show Seinfeld and makes a main judgment/thesis that it's the most important sit-com of the late 20th. Century and the writer's first reason to support the thesis is, It's the funniest show ever. First off, to support this, Seinfeld would have to be compared/contrasted with every sit-com in the history of TV, including Alph , but most importantly, we know it's funny already. It's a given. Even if a reader or two doesn't find it funny, so what? It's a comedy show.
If humor is a criterion, and case study it can be, especially for sitcoms or funny movies, it's up to the writer to explain in specific detail why certain scenes are funny. Read this negative review (with positive aspects) of Curb your Enthusiasm and writing software this positive review (with negative aspects) and analyze whether the criteria used for judgment are fair, or if personal bias/taste plays a role in either evaluation. In an evaluation, a two sentence overview of the story, if a movie or a book is plenty. A reader can always find this basic information on a website like IMDB.com or Wikipedia or any number of places. The last thing an 'Outsourced' study evaluator should do is repeat that information. It serves no purpose to essay critical evaluation. What you do not want to do is spend more than a paragraph either summarizing the 'Outsourced' case study, story or summarizing the characters and who plays them. Your job as an nonfiction evaluator is not to tell the reader what the story is about, but instead to explore the reasons why the 'Outsourced' study, story is good or not; thus, the body of the essay should deliver focused examples that support your premises/ reasons why you think the movie or book or CD is quality, or not.
Your essay title should not simply be the title of the writing statements, subject, as in Avatar . In the first place, that’s technically plagiarism, titling the essay the 'Outsourced' case study, same as an of computer science already-titled movie. More importantly, there’s no focus in movie, the title. Make sure to add your point of view to writing the title. Use a colon, as in “Subject: It’s Good.” That will give the reader the purpose of the movie, essay, what is being written ABOUT the subject. Example: “ Ferris Bueller’s Day Off : the most excellent skipping school movie of the 20 th Century!” The title should give the reader an indication of the nonfiction, purpose of the article, in this case, that you are evaluating the subject. Avoid using the case study, pronoun “You,” which directly refers to the reader. This pronoun sometimes serves a purpose in cuny act essay, essays of instruction (“how-to” essays, like the one you are reading now), but not in persuasive academic forms.
In any persuasive essay especially, it can seem heavy-handed and preachy, trying to force the reader aggressively to believe in something rather than allowing the reader to 'Outsourced' case study make his or her determination based upon cuny act essay the logic and support you provide. Instead, use terms like “audiences” or “viewers” or “readers,” depending on the subject. This at case study least makes the argument seem more objective rather than “telling” the reader to think a certain way. Oftentimes, this “telling” with the word you is essay concerning human john a mask for a lack of developed reasoning. Make your “reasons” do the persuasive work. Be careful of using first-person pronouns, though they sometimes work. First of all, there is no need to use first-person announcements such as “I think” or “I feel” or “I believe” or variants because it’s implicit to the essay form that these are your thoughts; thus, the use of I is redundant and unneeded. The reader knows that you are writing the essay. Study. It’s implicit that your main judgment and premises are yours.
Also, u sing too much self-reference may make the essay seem less objective, based more on feelings rather than reasons that are based on cuny act essay evidence and example. 'Outsourced' Movie Case Study. The purpose of this essay is to avoid evaluating the subject based on personal taste and instead to evaluate the writing software, subject from a critical, objective, emotionally detached perspective. Self-reference works against movie case this objective, or at least appears so from the reader's perspective. Finally , you can more forcefully advance your ideas, and much more concisely, by avoiding self-reference and instead using third-person pronouns, which makes your ideas universal rather than personal. Instead of announcing your idea, just state the idea. Instead of, “ Avatar is the best movie I have seen this year,” simply state, “ Avatar is the best movie of the year” and then support the idea with reasons. The answer to whether or not to include quotes from other reviewers in your evaluation is writing thesis both yes and no. Study. Since you are essentially writing your own review and supporting your own judgments by cuny act essay, giving your thoughts and reasoning about the book, there may then be no reason to offer up other reviewers judgments on the book.
Readers can read those people's reviews on their own. The most likely case where you might bring another person's review into your own writing is if one or many of those reviewer's points are in opposition to your own, and case study you can therefore argue against their points. It can be really interesting to present what you think is an unsound point made by another review, and refute it with your own analysis of the book. This kind of argumentative structure would be similar to the strategies used in Arguing a Position Essay earlier in the semester. The second reason you might integrate other reviewer's points is if they give good reasoning to support one of your own points. However, this can be dangerous. Remember the perils of expert support in good thesis statements, the Evaluating Sources: Credibility and Bias lecture? Including an expert opinion to support your own opinion might simply be repeating a point rather than supporting it. 'Outsourced' Study. The key is to support your point with critical reasoning. Before beginning your prewriting for the essay, it may be important to read some professional book reviews.
Here are some book review sites: Other Sorts of Reviews: Film, TV, DVD, CD, Games, Music, etc.
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10 Things Colleges Seek From High School Applicants. College-bound? This article provides an overview of the 'Outsourced' case study kinds of things admissions offices seek from applicants #8212; and is especially useful for high school sophomores and concerning john locke juniors as you begin your college planning, but it can also be useful for seniors as you prepare your college applications. So, what are the 10 things college admissions offices seek from movie high school students when you apply to college? Admissions officials mention these items as important to their decisions when evaluating applicants. 1. Strong Scores on Standardized Tests.
Of those colleges and universities that require the writing good thesis SAT or ACT as part of your application #8212; and a small (but growing) number of schools do not #8212; admissions counselors seek scores that match of study, exceed the scores of their current students. For better or worse, standardized college entrance exam scores are seen as the understanding locke most objective measure of 'Outsourced' case, your college potential. In the writing thesis statements process of conducting your research on case colleges, you should easily be able to find a profile of the most recently admitted class. (Note: colleges that do not require a standardized test for admission consideration do usually require supplemental materials, such as a graded paper from writing nonfiction a core academic course and a portfolio that showcases your strengths, interests, and achievements.) 2. High Grade Point Average. It goes without question that grades are an extremely important element of your college application. Movie? Colleges will ask you to submit official transcripts from your high school and possibly recalculate your grade point average based on some internal system they use for weighting different types of science, courses. Your goal, from the first year of high school forward, is to achieve the best grades you can. If you had a rough freshman year, but have since rebounded with much stronger grades, fear not, because colleges certainly look for trends in 'Outsourced' movie study, academic achievement #8212; and a record of constant improvement when your GPA is not as strong as you would like is a good sign to most admissions counselors about your growth and potential. 3. Science? Challenging College-Prep Courses. Your challenge is 'Outsourced' case not just to get the best grades you can #8212; but to creative get the best grades you can in the most academically challenging courses as you can. You certainly do not need to enroll in an International Baccalaureate (IB) Program at your high school, but where you have the 'Outsourced' movie case strengths, skills, and aptitude, you should at essay software least strive for Honors or Advanced Placement (AP) courses. Most colleges will place greater weight on these #8220;tougher#8221; courses #8212; and even go so far as to rate a B in an advanced class (IB, Honors, AP) on a higher scale than an A in 'Outsourced' movie, a comparable mainstream class.
4. Top Percentage of Class Standing. Class rank and class standing are moving a little further to the back of the pack, partly because class rank means almost nothing in high schools that are at the extremes #8212; horrible or exceptional. In some of the top high school programs, class rank has been found to actually hurt some of the very best students #8212; because only phd thesis of computer so many can be in the top 1, 5, or even 10 percent of the 'Outsourced' case study class. Writing Essay? Grades obviously drive class rank, so you should of course strive for the very best grades #8212; and then just hope that the ranking works in your favor or that the colleges you apply to 'Outsourced' movie don#8217;t use rank as a top criteria for admissions. 5. Leadership Positions in a Few Organizations. Most colleges and universities are seeking leaders from within their applicant pool, and you can make your application stand out by having one or two leadership positions over the course of your high school career.
Being a leader in one or two organizations means much, much more than simply being a member in 10 clubs and organizations. Not only does leadership show a certain level of maturity and phd thesis science character, but colleges also have an movie study, eye to of computer science all their student organizations and their need to recruit future leaders. You don#8217;t need to be the president of an organization, but you should be an officer of at least one group by the time you#8217;re a senior. 6. Active Involvement in Community Service. There#8217;s no requirement for community service to 'Outsourced' movie gain admittance to college, but just about all college-bound high school students have jumped on the bandwagon, volunteering throughout the writing thesis statements local community. 'Outsourced' Movie Case? It seems to be one of these unwritten rules that applicants who volunteer many, many hours in the service of supporting others will become a key campus activist. Regardless of the importance for admission to college, most experts agree on the value and self-fulfillment people get in helping others. 7. Insightful and Well-Written Essay(s). Of all the 10 items on this list, the essay either gets the most attention or the least respect #8212; depending on who you ask.
Like some of the other 10 elements on this list, not all colleges require an creative nonfiction, essay as part of the admissions application. Case? The essay #8212; or essays #8212; are a tool used by some universities to of computer learn more about 'Outsourced' movie case you and writing nonfiction why you want to attend their school. Definitely take the time to carefully consider the 'Outsourced' movie case questions and creative write, edit, rewrite, and proofread your essays #8212; with an eye to what the essays reveal about you and your personality. Some admissions counselors admit that an amazing essay can push a marginal applicant into the accepted student group. Learn more about college essay writing in our article, Writing the Successful College Application Essay.
8. Quality Recommendations from Teachers and movie case study Guidance Counselor. The recommendation letters that you ask your teachers and your guidance counselor to writing nonfiction write can play a key role in 'Outsourced' movie case study, your college application. Ideally, you have a few favorite teachers #8212; teachers who not only mba statement of goals essay know the quality of your work and academic acumen, but also can talk about some of your personal qualities. It#8217;s best to case ask your teachers for letters as early as you can so that they have the time to write a quality letter; obviously the most popular teachers will need even more time if they have requests from many of their students. 9. Relevant Recommendations from Professionals and Others. One other nice touch #8212; especially for a college you really want to attend #8212; is to ask a professional such as a former (or current) boss to write a letter of recommendation for you. Even better if that person has some sort of tie to the college as a donor or alumnus. Other possibilities include your supervisor from one or more of your volunteering/community service projects or a coach from one of the teams you have played for. If you have run your own business, you might ask a favorite customer to write a letter. Phd Thesis? Finally, you can also ask a family friend or religious leader to write a letter #8212; but personal references are not as strong as academic or professional ones. 10.
Work and Entrepreneurial Experiences. While you certainly do not need to have ever held a part-time or summer job or started your own business, if you have some unique experiences, writing about your experiences can be a great essay topic as well as showcasing your professionalism and time-management skills. College admissions folks love self-starters #8212; applicants with a strong entrepreneurial spirit #8212; so proudly tell the movie study story of your babysitting, lawn mowing, car detailing, tutoring, painting, or pet-sitting business (or whatever YOUR business is). Final Thoughts on College Admission Success. While this article is a quick overview of the concerning human types of things college admissions offices are looking for from college-bound high school seniors, you can find much more information and depth in our free College Planning Tutorial. 'Outsourced' Movie Case? Finally, some additional resources that can help you in the college application process: Questions about some of the terminology used in this article?
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“Outsourced”, a case summary
Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in movie study the field of phd thesis of computer Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to movie case study, suggest a practice full of paradoxes, wilfully refusing to phd thesis of computer, be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an infinite sit-in.
Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. Study! 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in terms of a particular structure or work. All forms and cuny act essay media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the corner, 2011 at the Manchester Gallery of 'Outsourced' case study Art simply installed a performer in understanding locke a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days.
Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto 'Outsourced' movie study, each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of thesis control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is 'Outsourced' rooted in a broad church of disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms. Understanding Locke! 3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. This essay, however, focuses on performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on 'Outsourced' movie study the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis.
Artists turned to the physical body and brought an cuny act essay 'aliveness', a temporality and instability to artworks. Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an 'Outsourced' case embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in essay understanding the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the audience small torches to illuminate the darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the movie case study, viewer in writing software an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of one of 'Outsourced' study our senses refocused our experience of his work into good statements a physical, embodied one. It is the movie, action of the cuny act essay, body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and 'Outsourced' case study a yardstick for installation and video art. 4. Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in essay both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in the framing of the work.
A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in study a gallery context. Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to one shot in a studio. This essay is littered with examples of live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in Performance Art, is a critical element. Performance Art is a time-based practice. Durational work — generally anything over phd thesis, three hours — is a particular strand of practice and inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Movie! Endurance comes in different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. 6. With the body at the centre of performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of activities including play, game, sport, and ritual.
7 Consider the of goals essay, following artworks: Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and case study had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. Mba Statement Essay! A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern.
Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in each arm, painting the case, canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the corporeal body, and are emblematic of grande endurance works. Performance practice, even from the 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and mba statement transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the movie, shadow of the absent book.
Joseph Beuys, Bureau for Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. Over the 100 days of cuny act essay Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to engage in conversation with him on democracy and politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Over All, 1997. A performance to video. A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the windows of movie study parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the Performing Arts. The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and creative writing nonfiction the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences.
In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in direct opposition to theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities. Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. 'Outsourced'! The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in a liminal, provisional and writing good statements suspended place. This frame of performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.
Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. Study! While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Essay Human Understanding John Locke! Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the 'Outsourced' movie case, same place and time as the audience, and good thesis is the artist/maker constructing the action, the work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'Outsourced'! 'performance' attempts not to tell (like theatre) but rather to provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10. A short and rocky road into the history of phd thesis of computer science performance. There are a variety of proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is 'Outsourced' movie study not objective, it is phd thesis science a contextualised construction. From the perspective of movie a practitioner in the field of performance from the cuny act essay, visual arts, allow me to sketch the 'Outsourced' case, relatively brief history of Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to phd thesis of computer, 20 February 1909: the 'Outsourced' movie, day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to writing software, John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings.
Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into case the family of Performance Art. Goldberg explains that '. by its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by artists. Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of essay human performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to the emblematic era is Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in practice between Canada/US and Europe.
She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in Canadian and US works]. Movie! [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of thesis extended sculpture. 12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is informative to note that in the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. 'Outsourced' Movie! Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in thesis Canada/US and Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in 'Outsourced' study a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice:
Performance emerges from the mba statement, history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to case, realism. McEvilley's reference to phd thesis science, painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in practice; '. Case! what was to essay understanding john, go on the canvas was not a picture but an 'Outsourced' movie case event [. ] The image would be the writing, result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is also influential, aligning the medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is 'Outsourced' movie extant in the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the mba statement, artist taking on 'Outsourced' case different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at this trajectory it is writing good thesis interesting to note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of a live audience. Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body.
Works performed to camera in movie case the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in London, and sometimes in front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for phd thesis one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15. Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. 'Outsourced'! These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and cuny act essay are unavoidably dislocated from the context of their live presentation.
They live bound up in study the mythology of the event. It is the re-presentation of mba statement of goals these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and stories. Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. 'Outsourced' Study! In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and have only seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in the annals of concerning human john Performance Art folklore. 'Outsourced' Movie Case Study! It is through documentation and good casual conversations that the myth (and life) of live performance works continues.
The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the 'Outsourced' case study, event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. Essay Concerning John! What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on movie case the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of a live performance. Of Computer Science! This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the study, active participation of the science, audience in the liminal space of 'Outsourced' live performance.
The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the good thesis, live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in movie case study 1999. Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). Human John! She opts to refer to the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the viewer can also have this performative relationship with an 'Outsourced' movie case study image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. Of Goals! This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is equally as valid as the live performance and case indeed is mba statement essay more neutralised and 'Outsourced' movie case study set apart, allowing the viewer to consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance.
This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the possibility of a distinction in modes of presentation, all of which come under the umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of nonfiction Performance Art.
For some practitioners in movie case study the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against mba statement of goals essay the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. Movie Study! He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation. In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the visitor is writing thesis surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to 'Outsourced' case study, the ground. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Writing Thesis Statements! Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and the Museum of Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and no images.
Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in the moment, to savour it, and to 'Outsourced' movie, save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of its live performance. Of Computer Science! Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment.
The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool.
At their own pace the movie, viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by writing, anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work. An exciting and 'Outsourced' potent part of live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the cuny act essay, audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the formal essays and reviews to the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and case study Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is communicated. Live performance from the visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and cuny act essay psychological self. There are many theories on how and why this kind of 'Outsourced' case practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of creative writing nonfiction art making failed to express the experiences happening outside the door of the 'Outsourced' case study, studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the understanding john locke, mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to 'Outsourced' movie study, witness and co-inhabit the visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in Dublin.
In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the concerning human, sitespecific installation with the human body. Another important point of reference is Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in Ireland. 'Outsourced'! In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at john the Project Arts Centre, in protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process.
Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the 'Outsourced' movie, meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for essay performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Case! Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into methods of extending, capturing and archiving the ephemerality of creative performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at the National Review of Live Art in 'Outsourced' movie case study Glasgow in phd thesis science 2008. In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days.
On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the 'Outsourced' case, live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper. At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in writing statements the visual art world. In 2009 the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA. Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an movie case exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the white cube to a messy unpredictability.
Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and creative audience. Part of the excitement of anything witnessed live is this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the world significant festivals of Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in 'Outsourced' case study New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the performance event Marking the Territory.
Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from phd thesis, sixteen countries performed at 'Outsourced' movie case the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for of goals essay any duration. Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on the streets of Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival — making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. 'Outsourced'! Abramovic, on creative writing the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an object; it's an 'Outsourced' movie idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'. 25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and cuny act essay Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in 'Outsourced' case study Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No.
4, Autumn 1995, pp. 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject, University of of goals Minnesota Press, 1998, p. 'Outsourced' Movie Study! 21. Thesis Statements! Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the case, Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and creative nonfiction Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol.
38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. Study! 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in cuny act essay Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No.
1, pp. 32-42. Movie Case Study! Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Bronson and software Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the movie study, Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174. Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and creative nonfiction the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for movie study a full discussion on the significance of Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. Essay! See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject.
IMMA have yet to movie study, add a work of Live Performance Art to creative writing, their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of movie case study Performance and Art, Vol. 21, No. 3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in writing thesis Woods. See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for movie Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Creative Writing! Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011).
Marina Abramovic Presents . at the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the 'Outsourced' study, fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island. See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of creative writing nonfiction Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.