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By Michael Savage. By Tommy Newberry. By James Delingpole. By Jerome Corsi. By Jack Cashill. ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT FEATURES: Democrat Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Conclusions. was elected President of the United States on November 4, 2008. Prior to that, he had served four years as a U.S. senator from Illinois (2005-2008) and best, eight years as an writing conclusions thesis Illinois state senator (1996-2004). “In Islam, religion passes from the father to research, the child. Writing Conclusions. Barack Hussein Obama, Sr. [his Kenyan birth father] was a Muslim who named his boy Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. Only Muslim children are named ‘Hussein’. [Barack Obama’s] stepfather, Lolo Soetoro, was also a Muslim.
In fact, as Obama's half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng explained to Jodi Kantor of the New York Times : ‘My whole family was Muslim, and most of the argumentative essay, people I knew were Muslim.’ An Indonesian publication, the Banjarmasin Post reports a former classmate, Rony Amir, recalling that ‘All the relatives of Barry's [Barack’s] father were very devout Muslims.’” * As a child in Indonesia, Obama attended Koranic classes at a Muslim school known as Besuki. At tha same time, he attended the St. Writing Conclusions. Francis of Assisi Catholic School. * In February 2009, Obama said: I was not raised in a particularly religious household. I had a father who was born a Muslim but became an atheist, grandparents who were non-practicing Methodists and Baptists, and a mother who was skeptical of organized religion. I didn't become a Christian until I moved to the South Side of Chicago after college. * In a March 2009 interview, Obama's then-30-year-old half-brother, George Hussein Onyango Obama , said that “on the inside Barack Obama is Muslim.” * In September 2010, Obama said: I came to my Christian faith later in admission essay help life. * Author Edward Klein , while researching his 2012 book The Amateur , once asked the Rev.
Jeremiah Wright, Obama's longtime pastor at Trinity United Methodisy Church in Chicago: Did you convert Obama from writing conclusions thesis Islam to Christianity? Wright replied enigmatically: That's hard to tell. * Daniel Pipes writes that many pieces of evidence argue for Obama having been born and raised a Muslim Specifically, says Pipes: (1) Islam is i want a patrilineal religion : In Islam, the father passes his faith to the children; and when a Muslim male has children with a non-Muslim female, Islam considers the conclusions thesis, children Muslim. Obama's grandfather and father having been Muslims the extent of their piety matters not at personal job all means that, in conclusions Muslim eyes, Barack was born a Muslim. (2) Arabic forenames based on the H-S-N trilateral root : All such names (Husayn or Hussein, Hasan, Hassân, Hasanayn, Ahsan, Muhsin, and others) are exclusively bestowed on essay, Muslim babies. (The same goes for thesis, names based on the H-M-D root.) Obama's middle name, Hussein, explicitly proclaims him a born Muslim.
(3) Registered as Muslim at SD Katolik Santo Fransiskus Asisi : Obama was registered at best english essay spm a Catholic school in Jakarta as Barry Soetoro. A surviving document correctly lists him as born in conclusions thesis Honolulu on Aug. 4, 1961; in addition, it lists him having Indonesian nationality and Muslim religion. (4) Registered as Muslim at SD Besuki : Although Besuki (also known as SDN 1 Menteng) is i want to buy a dissertation a public school, Obama curiously refers to it in Audacity (p. 154) as the Muslim school he attended in Jakarta. Its records have not survived but several journalists (Haroon Siddiqui of the Toronto Star , Paul Watson of the Los Angeles Times , David Maraniss of the Washington Post ) have all confirmed that there too, he was registered as a Muslim. (5) Islamic class at SD Besuki : Obama mentions ( Audacity , p. 154) that at conclusions thesis Besuki, the teacher wrote to tell my mother that I made faces during Koranic studies. Only Muslim students attended the weekly two-hour Koran class, Watson reports: two of his teachers, former Vice Principal Tine Hahiyari and third-grade teacher Effendi, said they remember clearly that at this school too, he was registered as a Muslim, which determined what class he attended during weekly religion lessons.
Muslim students were taught by a Muslim teacher, and Christian students were taught by a Christian teacher, said Effendi. Andrew Higgins of the Washington Post quotes Rully Dasaad, a former classmate, saying that Obama horsed around in class and, during readings of the Koran, got laughed at because of frederick taylor essay, his funny pronunciation. Writing Conclusions Thesis. Maraniss learned that the class included not only studying how to pray and how to read the frederick essay, Koran, but also actually praying in the Friday communal service right on the school grounds. (6) Mosque attendance : Maya Soetoro-Ng, Obama's younger half-sister, said her father (namely, Barack's stepfather) attended the mosque for big communal events, Barker found that Obama occasionally followed his stepfather to the mosque for Friday prayers. Watson reports: The childhood friends say Obama sometimes went to Friday prayers at conclusions thesis the local mosque. Custom Help. We prayed but not really seriously, just following actions done by older people in the mosque. But as kids, we loved to writing, meet our friends and went to the mosque together and i want to buy a dissertation, played, said Zulfin Adi, who describes himself as among Obama's closest childhood friends.
Sometimes, when the muezzin sounded the call to writing thesis, prayer, Lolo and Barry would walk to the makeshift mosque together, Adi said. Educational. His mother often went to the church, but Barry was Muslim. He went to the mosque, Adi said. (7) Muslim clothing : Adi recalls about Obama, I remember him wearing a sarong. Likewise,Maraniss found not only that His classmates recalled that Barry wore a sarong but written exchanges indicating that he continued to wear this garment in the United States.
This fact has religious implications because, in Indonesian culture, only Muslims wear sarongs. (8) Piety : Obama says that in conclusions Indonesia, he didn't practice [Islam], an assertion that inadvertently acknowledges his Muslim identity by implying he was a non-observant Muslim. Statement Worker. But several of writing, those who knew him contradict this recollection. Rony Amir describes Obama as previously quite religious in Islam. A former teacher, Tine Hahiyary, quoted in the Kaltim Post , says the future president took part in advanced Islamic religious lessons: I remember that he had studied mengaji . In the context of personal, Southeast Asian Islam, mengaji Quran means to recite the Koran in conclusions thesis Arabic, a difficult task denoting advanced study. In summary, the record points to Obama having been born a Muslim to a non-practicing Muslim father and custom admission essay help, having lived for four years in a fully Muslim milieu under the auspices of his Muslim Indonesian stepfather.
For these reasons, those who knew Obama in writing conclusions thesis Indonesia considered him a Muslim. * Daniel Pipes has pointed out the significance of the manner in which Obama typically addresses Muslim audiences: “When addressing Muslim audiences, Obama uses specifically Muslim phrases that recall his Muslim identity. He addressed audiences both in Cairo (in June 2009 ) and english essay spm, Jakarta (in Nov. 2010 ) with 'as-salaamu alaykum,' a greeting that he, who went to Koran class, knows is reserved for one Muslim addressing another.” Further, Pipes notes that “In Cairo, he [Obama] also deployed several other pious terms that signal to Muslims he is one of conclusions, them: (a) 'the Holy Koran' (a term mentioned five times): an exact translation from the standard Arabic reference to the Islamic scripture, al-Qur'an al-Karim ; (b) 'the right path': a translation of the Arabic as-sirat al-mustaqim , which Muslims ask God to guide them along each time they pray; (c) 'I have known Islam on three continents before coming to the region where it was first revealed': non-Muslims do not refer to Islam as revealed ; (d) 'the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed joined in paper abstracts prayer': this Koranic tale of a night journey establishes the leadership of Muhammad over conclusions all other holy figures, including Jesus; (e) 'Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed, peace be upon them': a translation of the Arabic 'alayhim as-salam , which pious Muslims say after mentioning the i want to buy a dissertation, names of dead prophets other than Muhammad.” * Pipes offers also the following insight about Obama's use of the phrase Peace be upon writing thesis, them: “Obama's saying 'Peace be upon them' has other implications beyond being a purely Islamic turn of phrase never employed by i want a dissertation Arabic-speaking Jews and Christians. First, it contradicts what a self-professed Christian believes because it implies that Jesus, like Moses and Muhammad, is dead; Christian theology holds him to have been resurrected, living, and the immortal Son of God. Second, including Muhammad in this blessing implies reverence for him, something as outlandish as a Jew talking about Jesus Christ . Third, a Christian would more naturally seek peace from Jesus rather than wish peace on him.” “[Obama] drastically overestimates both the number and writing thesis, the role of Muslims in frederick taylor the United States, announcing in writing conclusions thesis June 2009 that 'if you actually took the number of Muslims Americans, we'd be one of the largest Muslim countries in the world.' (Hardly: according to one listing of educational research, Muslim populations , the United States, with about 2.5 million Muslims , ranks about 47 th largest.) Three days later , he gave a bloated estimate of 'nearly 7 million American Muslims in conclusions thesis our country today' and bizarrely announced that 'Islam has always been a part of America's story. since our founding, American Muslims have enriched the United States.' Obama also announced the essay, dubious fact, in Apr. 2009 , that many Americans 'have Muslims in their families or have lived in conclusions thesis a Muslim-majority country.' When ordering religious communities in the United States, Obama always gives first place to Christians but second place varies between Jews and Muslims, most notably in his Jan. 2009 inaugural speech: 'The United States is a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and essay help, Hindus and non-believers.' Obama so wildly overestimates the conclusions, Muslim role in American life that they suggest an custom essay Islamic supremacist mentality specific to someone coming from a Muslim background.” The 1970s and CPUSA Member Frank Marshall Davis: In 1971, Obama was sent back to writing conclusions, Hawaii to be raised largely by his white, middle-class, maternal grandparents, and to social worker, attend the prestigious Punahou Academy. For only writing conclusions one month of his life, also when he was ten, Obama was visited by his biological father.
To avoid being mistaken for a sellout,I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos.The Marxist Professors and frederick taylor, the structural feminists and writing thesis, punk-rock performance poets.We smoked cigarettes and wore leather jackets. At night,in the dorms,we discussed neocolonialism, [the socialist, anti-colonialist revolutionary] Franz Fanon,Eurocentrism,and patriarchy. When we ground out taylor, our cigarettes in the hallway carpet or set our stereos so loud that the walls began to shake, we were resisting bourgeois society's stifling constraints.
We weren't indifferent or careless or insecure. Conclusions. We were alienated. John C. Drew's Recollections of Obama as a Student at Occidental College: What’s missing from this story is personal social worker job that the 'social justice' young men and writing conclusions thesis, women were, in fact, simply left-wing socialists. Abstracts. They found a hero in Professor Boesche because he made complex texts easier to understand and because he encouraged them to fight even though they would be inevitably ground up in the gears of history. The outrage that Obama felt when he got a 'B' from Boesche was due to writing thesis, the idea that Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was a revolutionary who shared Boesche’s perspective. Obama felt he was held to a higher standard because he was one of the student[s] in greatest ideological agreement with what Professor Boesche was teaching at that time. In February 2010, John C. Admission. Drew shared the conclusions thesis, following recollections he had of Obama: I met Barack Obama face-to-face later that same year in late December 1980.
By then, I was in my second year of graduate school at Cornell. I was doing my first, official teaching. The young Ann Coulter was a student in Theodore J. Lowi’s Introduction to American Government course in argumentative oil price 1980 and I was the thesis, teaching assistant responsible for frederick taylor essay, guiding her small group discussion section. Conclusions. Back on i want, the West Coast for writing conclusions, Christmas break, I was visiting a girlfriend who was still attending Occidental College who introduced me to 'Barry' Obama and his housemate Mohammed Hasan Chandoo, a wealthy Pakistani student. From Occidental, Obama transferred to argumentative essay oil price, Columbia University in New York City, where he graduated in writing conclusions 1983 with a degree in essay political science. Writing Conclusions Thesis. In 1982, Obama's biological father -- Barack Obama, Sr. -- died in a car crash. In Dreams From My Father , Obama reveals that during his student years at Columbia he “went to social worker, socialist conferences at Cooper Union and African cultural fairs in Brooklyn.” Specifically, these were Socialist Scholars Conferences (SSC), which featured the conclusions thesis, elite of personal statement social worker job, socialist academia as well as union activists, political revolutionaries, reformers, and conclusions, opponents of “corporate greed.” According to the libertarian writer Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at argumentative essay oil price these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the writing, Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotskyists, black radicals, gay activists and best, radical feminists.” Matthew Vadum and writing conclusions thesis, Jeremy Lott provide an excellent explanation of what a community organizer does. Essay. They write: “What does a “community organizer” do? Good question. Ever since former New York mayor Rudy Giuliani mocked Senator Barack Obama at thesis the Republican convention in September 2008, for statement, the senator’s community organizing past, and writing thesis, Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that her previous experience as mayor was “sort of like a ‘community organizer,’ except that you have actual responsibilities,” [Obama’s] supporters have been furiously spinning this one.
They’ve suggested a fanciful interpretation of help, “community organizer” that includes organizing church picnics and bake sales. Some have even had the cheek to suggest that Jesus Christ was a community organizer. Dr. Writing Thesis. Thomas Sowell, the statement job, eminent Stanford University sociologist, offers this assessment of what community organizers do: For 'community organizers' . racial resentments are a stock in trade.
What does a community organizer do? What he does not do is writing conclusions thesis organize a community. What he organizes are the resentments and paranoia within a community, directing those feelings against i want to buy a dissertation, other communities, from whom either benefits or revenge are to conclusions thesis, be gotten, using whatever rhetoric or tactics will accomplish that purpose. Political analyst Andrew McCarthy calls community organizing a gussied-up term for systematic rabble-rousing. He adds:
The quest for raw power is the gospel according to the seminal organizer, Saul Alinsky. In Obama terminology, 'hope' is the frederick taylor, possibility that power may be wrested from society’s 'haves' by writing infiltrating their political system. Just as Willie Sutton robbed banks because that’s where the money is, organizers must target the very system they reject to acquire powermaking themselves attractive to the great mass of society despite having 'contemptuously rejected the essay, values and the way of writing thesis, life of the middle class,' as Alinsky put it. This is the custom essay help, formula for thesis, transformational 'change': the exploitation of power, once acquired, to redistribute wealth and personal statement job, elevate the left’s professionally aggrieved vanguard. The day after the rally, Marty [Jerry Kellman in Dreams] decided it was time for thesis, me to do some real work, and he handed me a long list of people to interview. Help. Find out writing conclusions thesis, their self-interest, he said.
That’s why people become involved in organizingbecause they think they’ll get something out of it. Once I found an issue enough people cared about, I could take them into action. With enough actions, I could start to build power. Personal Statement Social Job. Issues, action, power, self-interest. I liked these concepts. They bespoke a certain hardheadedness, a worldly lack of sentiment; politics, not religion. Obama's expenses at writing conclusions thesis DCP were signed and approved by admission the late Cardinal Joseph Bernardin, a far-leftist who founded the Catholic Campaign for Human Development (CCHD); who famously credited Mikhail Gorbachev, not Reagan or John Paul II, with having brought about the collapse of the Soviet Union; and writing thesis, who called for a “consistent ethic of life,” in an effort to persuade anti-abortion Catholics to likewise embrace pacifism and wealth redistribution.
He pursued manifestly worthy goals; protecting people from asbestos in government housing projects is essay oil price obviously a good thing and a responsibility of the government that built them. But [in every case except one] the proposed solution to every problem on the South Side was a distribution of government funds . Conclusions Thesis.  Nor was Obama reluctant to educational abstracts, use intimidation as a tactic. Conclusions. In one instance, he personally orchestrated a demonstration in which scores of protestors broke into a private meeting between bank executives and local community leaders, menacing them as they attempted to negotiate a deal vis a vis a controversial landfill issue. In 1987, when Obama was executive director of best, DCP, he asked Chicago mayor Harold Washington to support a community organizing project whose advisory board would include Obama's pastor Jeremiah Wright, the leftist Catholic priest Michael Pfleger, Illinois State Senator Emil Jones, and John Ayers (brother of former Weather Underground terrorist Bill Ayers). In a followup letter addressed to Washington’s assistant three days later, Obama again laid out his plans and included a list of his advisory council members. Trained in the Saul Alinsky Method: Three of Obama's mentors in Chicago were trained at the Saul Alinsky-founded Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the Windy City. (The Developing Communities Project itself was an affiliate of the writing conclusions, Gamaliel Foundation, whose modus operandi for the creation of educational research abstracts, “a more just and democratic society” is rooted firmly in the Alinsky method.) Alinsky was known for having helped to establish the aggressive political tactics that characterized the 1960s, and which have remained central to writing thesis, all subsequent revolutionary movements in the United States. He was a natural, the undisputed master of agitation, who could engage a room full of recruiting targets in a rapid-fire Socratic dialogue, nudging them to admit that they were not living up to their own standards. As with the panhandler, he could be aggressive and confrontational.
With probing, sometimes personal questions, he would pinpoint the source of pain in their lives, tearing down their egos just enough before dangling a carrot of hope that they could make things better. For several years, Obama himself taught workshops on the Alinsky method. “Grass-roots community organizing builds on indigenous leadership and direct action. The debate as to how black and other dispossessed people can forward their lot in America is not new. Educational Abstracts. From W. E. B. DuBois to Booker T. Writing Thesis. Washington to Marcus Garvey to Malcolm X to Martin Luther King, this internal debate has raged between integration and nationalism, between accommodation and argumentative essay oil price, militancy, between sit-down strikes and conclusions thesis, boardroom negotiations. The lines between these strategies have never been simply drawn, and the most successful black leadership has recognized the need to bridge these seemingly divergent approaches. Author Andrew McCarthy makes the following observations about Obama's words: Breathtaking. Lawfulness and lawlessness, thuggishness and personal statement job, regular politicswe’re not to divine any moral or ethical differences.
They are just different 'approaches' to empowerment. They only conclusions 'seem' to be 'divergent.' It may be important to maintain the veneer of respect for legal processes, but it is just as legitimate to stretch or break the rules whenever necessary to achieve the essay help, desired outcomesocial justice being a higher form of legitimacy than society’s rule of law. Separatism, menacing, and civil disobedience: none of writing conclusions thesis, these is worker job beyond the pale; they are simply choices on conclusions, the hard power menu Obama 'bridges' with soft power (i.e., the system’s mundane legal and political processes). As a young community organizer, Obama had close connections to the Midwest Academy, a radical training ground for activists of his political ilk. Probably the educational research paper abstracts, most influential community-organizing-related entity in writing America at that time, the oil price, Midwest Academy worked closely with the DSA and synthesized Saul Alinsky’s organizing techniques with the practical considerations of electoral politics. Writing Conclusions. Emphasizing “class consciousness” and “movement history,” the Academy’s training programs exposed students to the efforts and achievements of veteran activists from earlier decades. Recurring “socialism sessions,” taught by Heather Booth, encompassed everything from Marx and Engels through Michael Harrington’s democratic socialism and the factional struggles of the Students for a Democratic Society, a radical organization that aspired to remake America’s government in a Marxist image. Knowing that many Americans would be unreceptive to straightforward, hard-left advocacy, the Midwest Academy in abstracts its formative years was careful not to writing thesis, explicitly articulate its socialist ideals in educational research paper abstracts its organizing and training activities. Writing. The group’s inner circle was wholly committed to building a socialist mass movement, but stealthily rather than overtly. As Midwest Academy trainer Steve Max and the prominent socialist Harry Boyte agreed in a private correspondence: “Every social proposal that we make must be [deceptively] couched in terms of how it will strengthen capitalism.” This strategy of hiding its own socialist agendas below the educational abstracts, proverbial radar, earned the Academy the designation “crypto-socialist organization” from Stanley Kurtz. “Nearly every thread of Obama’s career runs directly or indirectly through the Midwest Academy,” says Kurtz, and, as such, it represents “the hidden key to Barack Obama’s political career.” The author elaborates: “Obama’s organizing mentors had ties to [the Midwest Academy]; Obama’s early funding was indirectly controlled by it; evidence strongly suggests that Obama himself received training there; both Barack and Michelle Obama ran a project called ‘Public Allies’ that was effectively an extension of the Midwest Academy; Obama’s first run for public office was sponsored by thesis Academy veteran Alice Palmer; and Obama worked closely at two foundations for years with yet another veteran organizer from the Midwest Academy, Ken Rolling.
Perhaps more important, Barack Obama’s approach to politics is clearly inspired by that of the Midwest Academy.” Obama and the Alliance for spm, Better Chicago Schools: In 1988 Obama applied for admission to Harvard Law School. At the time, a Muslim attorney and black nationalist named Khalid Abdullah Tariq al-Mansour asked civil rights activist Percy Sutton to send a letter of recommendation to thesis, his (Sutton's) friends at Harvard on Obama's behalf. In an interview published by the Daily Herald on March 3, 1990, Barck Obama said: I feel good when I'm engaged in what I think are the frederick, core issues of the society, and those core issues to writing, me are what's happening to poor folks in this society. There's certainly racism here [at Harvard Law School]. There are certain burdens that are placed [on blacks], more emotionally at this point than concretely.
Hopefully, more and more people will begin to feel their story is somehow part of worker, this larger story of how we're going to reshape America in a way that is less mean-spirited and more generous. Writing Conclusions Thesis. I mean, I really hope to be part of a transformation of this country. In May 2012, Breitbart News reported that it had obtained a 36-page promotional booklet produced in frederick 1991 by writing conclusions Barack Obama's then-literary agency, Acton Dystel, which stated that Obama was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and Hawaii. The booklet, which was distributed to people in best the publishing industry, includes a brief biography of Obama and 89 other authors represented by conclusions Acton Dystel. Obama’s biography in the booklet reads as follows: Barack Obama, the first African-American president of the i want, Harvard Law Review , was born in Kenya and raised in Indonesia and writing, Hawaii.
The son of an American anthropologist and a Kenyan finance minister, he attended Columbia University and worked as a financial journalist and editor for Business International Corporation. He served as project coordinator in personal statement social worker Harlem for thesis, the New York Public Interest Research Group, and was Executive Director of the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side. His commitment to social and research paper abstracts, racial issues will be evident in his first book, Journeys in Black and White . The booklet also included biographies of such notable authors as former Speaker of the House Tip O’Neill, sports legends Joe Montana and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and writing thesis, a number of custom admission essay, Hollywood celebrities. Jay Acton (of Acton Dystel) told Breitbart News that the booklet had cost the conclusions, agency tens of essay oil price, thousands of dollars to produce. Writing Thesis. He said that while almost nobody wrote his or her own biography, the non-athletes in the booklet were probably approached to approve the to buy a dissertation, text as presented.
His most traditional course was in the due process and writing conclusions thesis, equal protection areas of constitutional law. His voting rights class traced the evolution of election law, from the disenfranchisement of blacks to taylor essay, contemporary debates over districting and campaign finance. His most original course, a historical and political seminar as much as a legal one, was on racism and law [In] one class on race, he imitated the writing thesis, way clueless white people talked. 'Why are your friends at the housing projects shooting each other?' he asked in a mock-innocent voice. Social. . Mr. Obama was especially eager for his charges to understand the horrors of the writing, past, students say. He assigned a 1919 catalog of lynching victims, including some who were first raped or stripped of their ears and fingers, others who were pregnant or lynched with their children, and some whose charred bodies were sold off, bone fragment by bone fragment, to gawkers. 'Are there legal remedies that alleviate not just existing racism, but racism from the frederick essay, past?' Adam Gross, now a public interest lawyer in Chicago, wrote in his class notes in April 1994. Liberals flocked to his classes[.] After all, the professor was a progressive politician[.] . Karen McQuillan writes, in American Thinker , that Obama was a lecturer, and not a full professor, because he did not have the qualifications to writing thesis, be a professor. Adds McQuillan: Obama never published a single law paper. He was hired by the University of Chicago when they learned he had been given a book contract on race and law directly after graduating from Harvard. There was no book just the contract, which he later reneged on.
This is not the taylor essay, normal level of accomplishment for a University of Chicago professor or even lecturer. Introduction to thesis, ACORN and Project Vote: In the early to mid-1990s, Obama worked with ACORN, a grassroots political organization that grew out of George Wiley's National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). In the late 1960s and early 70s, NWRO members had invaded welfare offices across the U.S. -- often violently -- bullying social workers and loudly demanding every penny to which the law “entitled” them.  Litigator for Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C .: In 1993 Barack Obama took a job as a litigator of voting rights and employment cases with the research abstracts, law firm Davis, Miner, Barnhill Galland, P.C. (a.k.a.
Davis Miner). That same year, he also became a lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. Obama -- along with such notables as Al Sharpton and Jeremiah Wright -- helped organize the October 1995 Million Man March in writing thesis Washington, DC, which featured Nation of i want a dissertation, Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Conclusions Thesis. Said Obama in the immediate aftermath of the March: “What I saw was a powerful demonstration of an impulse and need for personal, African-American men to come together to writing, recognize each other and affirm our rightful place in the society. Essay. Historically, African-Americans have turned inward and towards black nationalism whenever they have a sense, as we do now, that the writing conclusions thesis, mainstream has rebuffed us, and that white Americans couldn’t care less about the social worker, profound problems African-Americans are facing.” Obama Smears White Executives in the Suburbs: I worked as a community organizer in Chicago.
I was very active in low-income neighborhoods, working on issues of crime and education and employment, and seeing that in some ways, certain portions of the thesis, African American community are doing as bad if not worse, and educational paper, recognizing that my fate remained tied up with their fates, that my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices, and writing conclusions thesis, this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. By no means was this the only time Obama spoke about i want collective salvation. In a 1998 radio interview he said: . Writing Conclusions. my individual salvation is not going to come about without a collective salvation for the country. Um, unfortunately I think that recognition requires that we make sacrifices and frederick taylor, this country has not always been willing to make the sacrifices necessary to bring about a new day and a new age. Obama Identifies White Suppression of Blacks As a Problem in the United States, As Elsewhere: . [T]he truth of the matter is that many of the problems that Africa faces, whether it's poverty or political suppression or ethnic conflict is just as prominent there and can't all be blamed on the effects of writing, colonialism. What it can be blamed on argumentative oil price, is some of the common factors that affect Bosnia or Los Angeles or all kinds of places on writing thesis, this earth, and that is the tendency for argumentative, one group to try to writing conclusions, suppress another group in the interest of power or greed or resources or what have you. In an english spm environment of scarcity, where the cost of living is rising, folks begin to writing thesis, get angry and bitter and look for scapegoats. Historically, instead of looking at the top 5% of this country that controls all the i want a dissertation, wealth, we turn towards each other, and the Republicans have added to the fire. In that same interview, Obama said that his perspective on conclusions, the “top 5%” had been shaped by his experiences abroad: It's about power.
My travels made me sensitive to the plight of those without power and english essay spm, the issues of class and inequalities as it relates to wealth and power. Writing Thesis. Anytime you have been overseas in these so-called third world countries, one thing you see is the vast disparity of wealth of research paper, those who are part of power structure and those outside of writing thesis, it. Bill Ayers, Bernardine Dohrn, and Obama's Entry into Politics: In the mid-1990s, Obama developed a friendship with fellow Chicagoans Bill Ayers and his wife Bernardine Dohrn, university professors who hosted a fundraiser at their home to admission, introduce Obama to their neighbors during his first run for the Illinois state senate in 1996. Thesis. (This fundraiser was likely organized by the socialist New Party.) Ayers (who contributed money to Obama’s 1996 campaign) and Dohrn had been leaders of the 1960s domestic terrorist group Weatherman, a Communist-driven splinter faction of Students for educational abstracts, a Democratic Society. The pair had participated personally in the bombings of New York City Police Headquarters in 1970, the Capitol building in 1971, and the Pentagon in 1972. To this day, both have remained unrepentant about their former terrorist activities and their hatred of the United States. Writing.  “This is a guy who lives in my neighborhood, who is a professor of English in Chicago, who I know, and who I have not received some official endorsement from.
He is not somebody who I exchange ideas from [with] on statement worker job, a regular basis. And the notion that somehow, as a consequence of writing conclusions, me knowing somebody who engaged in detestable acts forty years ago when I was eight years old, somehow reflects on me and frederick essay, my values doesn't make much sense [T]his kind of game, in writing thesis which anybody who I know, regardless of how flimsy the relationship is, [that] somehow their ideas could be attributed to me, I think the American people are smarter than that. They’re not gonna suggest somehow that that is reflective of my views, because it obviously isn’t.” Chicago Annenberg Challenge and Bill Ayers: But in reality, Obama's ties to frederick taylor, Ayers were deep and longstanding. In 1995, for instance, Obama was appointed as the writing thesis, first Chairman of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge (CAC), a “school reform organization” founded by Ayers, who would later write, in admission his book Teaching Toward Freedom , that his educational objective was to “teach against oppression” as embodied in writing “America’s history of evil and racism, thereby forcing social transformation.” “Ayers made presentations to spm, board meetings chaired by Obama. Ayers also spoke for the Chicago School Reform Collaborative before Obama's board, while Obama periodically spoke for the board at meetings of the collaborative According to the documents, the writing, CAC granted money to far-leftist causes, such as the radical Association of Community Organizations for educational research paper, Reform Now, or ACORN, which has done work on behalf of Obama's presidential campaign.” WorldNetDaily reported further that “while Obama chaired the board of the conclusions, CAC, more than $600,000 was granted to an organization founded by best spm Ayers and run by Mike Klonsky, a former top communist activist.
Klonsky was leader of the Marxist-Leninist Communist Party, which was effectively recognized by China as the all-but-official U.S. Maoist party.” Said Stanley Kurtz: “Instead of funding schools directly, [the CAC] required schools to affiliate with ‘external partners,’ which actually got the money. Proposals from groups focused on math/science achievement were turned down. Instead CAC disbursed money through various far-left community organizers, such as ACORN.” Kurtz has provided the following synopsis of the CAC/Ayers agendas: The CAC's agenda flowed from Mr. Ayers's educational philosophy, which called for infusing students and their parents with a radical political commitment, and which downplayed achievement tests in favor of writing conclusions, activism. In the mid-1960s, Mr. Ayers taught at a dissertation a radical alternative school, and served as a community organizer in Cleveland's ghetto. Between 1995 and 1999, Obama and CAC distributed $110 million to a variety of thesis, leftist education enterprises for experiments in Chicago's public schools. During his time teaching at the University of Chicago, Obama told then-colleague John Lott directly: “I don’t believe people should be able to own guns.”
Obama Endorses Ayers' Book: In December 1997 Obama wrote a blurb praising Ayers' recently published book, A Kind and Just Parent: The Children of Juvenile Court , calling it a searing and timely account of the essay, juvenile court system, and the courageous individuals who rescue hope from despair. A notable attendee at conclusions the aforementioned political gatherings which Ayers and Dohrn hosted on behalf of Obama (in the mid-1990s) was Democratic state senator Alice J. Palmer (of Illinois’ 13th District), who quickly developed a friendly relationship with Obama. Personal Social. Prior to her stint in politics, Palmer had worked for the Black Press Institute and was editor of the Black Press Review . During the Cold War, she supported the Soviet Union and spoke out against the United States. In the 1980s she served as an executive board member of the U.S. Peace Council, which the FBI identified as a Communist front group (and which was an affiliate of the World Peace Council, an international Soviet front). Writing Thesis. Palmer participated in the World Peace Council’s Prague assembly in frederick taylor essay 1983 -- just as the USSR was launching its “nuclear freeze” movement, a scheme that would have frozen Soviet nuclear and military superiority in place. Obama Betrays Palmer: But in thesis November 1995, Jesse Jackson, Jr. defeated Palmer in a special election for Reynolds’ empty congressional seat. At that point, Palmer filed to retain the argumentative, Democratic nomination for the state senate seat she had encouraged Obama to pursue; that seat would be up for grabs in the November 1996 elections.
She asked Obama to politely withdraw from the race and writing thesis, offered to statement job, help him find an alternative position elsewhere. In 1995 Barack Obama sought the endorsement of the so-called New Party for his 1996 state senate run. Writing Conclusions. He was successful in obtaining that endorsement, and best essay, he used a number of conclusions thesis, New Party volunteers as campaign workers. Obama was involved as early as 1993, with a New Party sister organization - Progressive Chicago. This organization was formed by oil price members of the New Party as a support group for progressive candidates.
It's main instigators included New Party members Madeline Talbott of Chicago ACORN and Dan Swinney, a Chicago labor unionist. Barack Obama was probably approached to join Progressive Chicago as early April 7, 1993, as this unsigned handwritten note suggests [see image here]. According to the same note Obama was more than happy to be involved [see image here]. By September 1993 Obama was one of 17 people listed as a signatory on writing conclusions, all Progressive Chicago letters - as shown by the second page of essay, this September 22 Progressive Chicago letter to Joe Gardner [see image here]. It appears beyond doubt that Barack Obama was involved, more than two years before his Illinois State Senate run, with a New Party founded, sister organization - Progressive Chicago.
In a 2010 interview, Carl Davidson, a Marxist activist who helped establish the New Party, recalled Obama's involvement with the conclusions, New Party: A subcommittee met with [Obama] to admission essay help, interview him to see if his stand on the living wage and similar reforms was the same as ours. Writing Thesis. We determined that our views on these overlapped, and we could endorse his campaign in argumentative oil price the Democratic Party. Recently obtained evidence from the updated records of Illinois ACORN at the Wisconsin Historical Society now definitively establishes that Obama was a member of the New Party. He also signed a 'contract' promising to publicly support and writing thesis, associate himself with the New Party while in office. Barack Obama, candidate for State Senate in the 13th Legislative District, gave a statement to i want to buy a dissertation, the membership and thesis, answered questions. He signed the New Party 'Candidate Contract' and requested an endorsement from the New Party. He also joined the frederick essay, New Party. Consistent with this, a roster of the Chicago chapter of the New Party from early 1997 lists Obama as a member, with January 11, 1996, indicated as the writing conclusions, date he joined. Obama Calls for Collective Action; Says the Christian Right is Characterized by Intolerance and Narrow-mindedness; Blames Society for Failing to Educate Teens Who Get in Trouble:
In a 1995 story in i want to buy a dissertation the Chicago Reader , Obama was quoted saying: In America, we have this strong bias toward individual action. You know, we idolize the John Wayne hero who comes in to correct things with both guns blazing. But individual actions, individual dreams, are not sufficient. We must unite in collective action, build collective institutions and organizations. The right wing talks about this but they keep appealing to thesis, that old individualistic bootstrap myth: get a job, get rich, and get out. Frederick Taylor. Instead of investing in our neighborhoods, that's what has always happened.
Our goal must be to help people get a sense of building something larger. People are hungry for community; they miss it. They are hungry for change. The Marxist Carl Davidson and conclusions, Obama's 1996 State Senate Run: Obama’s 1996 senate campaign also secured the endorsement of the best, Democratic Socialists of America (DSA), the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. affiliate of the Socialist International. Obama’s affiliation with DSA was longstanding, as evidenced by thesis his reference, in Dreams From My Father , to abstracts, the fact that during his student years at Columbia University he “went to socialist conferences at Cooper Union,” a privately funded college for the advancement of science and art. From the early 1980s until 2004, Cooper Union had served as the usual venue of the annual Socialist Scholars Conference. Conclusions. According to Trevor Loudon, guest speakers at these conferences included “members of the Communist Party USA and its offshoot, the Committees of Correspondence, as well as Maoists, Trotsyists, black radicals, gay activists and radical feminists.” London observes that “Obama speaks of ‘ conferences ’ plural, indicating [that] his attendance was not the result of accident or youthful curiosity.” So, what’s in the play? It truly is frederick a love song to Alinsky.
In the first few minutes of the play, Alinsky plays Moses yes, the Biblical Moses talking to God. The play glorifies Alinsky stealing food from conclusions thesis restaurants and organizing others to do the same, explaining, 'I saw it as a practical use of research, social ecology: you had members of the intellectual community, the hope of the conclusions thesis, future, eating regularly for six months, staying alive till they could make their contributions to society.' Joining Obama on the discussion panel were the essay oil price, following individuals: Also in 1937, Despres and his wife met with, and writing conclusions, delivered a suitcase of “clothing” to, Leon Trotsky, who was then in Mexico City, hiding from Stalin’s assassins. The Joyce Foundation:
I Actually Believe in Redistribution: At an October 19, 1998 conference at Loyola University, Barack Obama said: There has been a systematic . propaganda campaign against the possibility of educational research paper abstracts, government action and its efficacy. And I think some of it has been deserved. Writing Conclusions. The trick is, how do we structure government systems that pool resources and hence facilitate some redistribution, because I actually believe in redistribution, at least at a certain level, to make sure that everybody's got a shot. “to the extent that we are doing research figuring out what kinds of argumentative essay oil price, government action would successfully make their [the working poor's] lives better, we are then putting together a potential majority coalition to move those agendas forward”; the one good thing that comes out of [the welfare-reform bill of 1996] is writing conclusions thesis that it essentially desegregates the welfare population,” merging urban blacks with “the working poor, which are the other people; and such a coalition becomes one batch of statement, folks . Writing Thesis. that is best essay increasingly a majority population” whose policy needs would grow to encompass health care, job training, education, and a system where government would “provide effective child care.” The Woods Fund of Chicago and Bill Ayers: Obama also had been a board member of the Woods Fund of Chicago since 1993. In 1999 he was joined on writing conclusions thesis, this board by Bill Ayers, who would serve alongside Obama until the latter left the english essay, Fund in December 2002. (In 2002 -- while Obama was still on the board -- the Woods Fund made a grant to Northwestern University Law School's Children and Family Justice Center, where Ayers' wife, Bernardine Dohrn, was employed.) In 2000, Obama ran against conclusions, former Black Panther and incumbent congressman Bobby Rush in the Democratic Primary for custom admission, the U.S. House of Representatives. Rush denounced Obama as an “elitist” who “wasn’t black enough,” and crushed him by nearly a two-to-one vote margin.
Obama returned to the Illinois state senate for another four-year term. As noted earlier, during his state senate years Obama was a lecturer at the University of Chicago law school, where he became friendly with Rashid Khalidi, a professor in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. Obama and his wife were regular dinner guests at Khalidi’s Hyde Park home. Khalidi and his wife Mona had founded in 1995 the Arab American Action Network (AAAN), noted for its contention that Arab Americans face widespread discrimination in the United States, and for its view that Israel’s creation in conclusions 1948 was a catastrophe for Arab people. In 2001 and again in 2002, the Woods Fund of Chicago, while Obama served on its board, made grants totaling $75,000 to AAAN. Shortly after Obama’s unsuccessful run for Congress in 2000, he was deeply in debt, with little cash at his disposal (his annual part-time salary as a state senator was $58,000) and a stagnant law practice that he had largely neglected during a year of political campaigning. “Even as I hope for some measure of peace and research abstracts, comfort to conclusions thesis, the bereaved families, I must also hope that we as a nation draw some measure of wisdom from this tragedy. Certain immediate lessons are clear, and we must act upon those lessons decisively. Essay. We need to conclusions thesis, step up security at our airports. We must reexamine the effectiveness of our intelligence networks. And we must be resolute in to buy a dissertation identifying the writing thesis, perpetrators of these heinous acts and dismantling their organizations of destruction.
Depicting America as a Racially and Economically Unjust Society: Obama was an outspoken opponent of the Iraq War ever since it was first discussed as a possible means of unseating Saddam Hussein from power. On October 2, 2002, Obama gave an to buy a dissertation antiwar speech alongside Jesse Jackson on writing conclusions thesis, the very day that President Bush and Congress agreed on a joint resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. It was with this speech that Obama first caught the attention of the American public. Now, let me be clear I suffer no illusions about Saddam Hussein. He is a brutal man. A ruthless man.
A man who butchers his own people to educational research abstracts, secure his own power. He has repeatedly defied U.N. resolutions, thwarted U.N. Writing Conclusions. inspection teams, developed chemical and custom help, biological weapons, and thesis, coveted nuclear capacity. Custom. He's a bad guy. The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. Also in his 2002 speech, Obama said that instead of using force to depose Saddam, America should “fight” for democratic reforms in the Middle East, for stronger international nuclear safeguards, and for conclusions, energy independence: “Those are the best, battles that we need to thesis, fight. Those are the battles that we willingly join the battles against ignorance and intolerance, corruption and greed. Poverty and despair.” In July 2004, Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston.
He used the speech to introduce himself to a national audience while impugning the Bush administration and social job, the War in conclusions thesis Iraq. In 2004 Obama ran for frederick taylor, one of conclusions thesis, Illinois’ two seats in the U.S. Senate. The Chicago Tribune endorsed Obama’s campaign. More importantly, the Tribune persuaded a Democrat-appointed judge in California to open the sealed divorce records of Obama’s Republican opponent to the media.
The resulting sex scandal, based on allegations in the divorce records by a Hollywood actress eager to prevent her ex-husband from getting custody of their children, prompted the Republican to taylor, resign from the race. One month before the 2004 Democratic primary for the U.S. Senate, Obama was down in the polls, about to lose to Blair Hull, a multimillionaire securities trader. But then the Chicago Tribune leaked the claim that Hull’s second ex-wife, Brenda Sexton, had sought an order of protection against him during their 1998 divorce proceedings. Obama then used similar techniques to writing conclusions, win the general election, as Human Events again explains: As luck would have it, Obama’s opponent in the general election had also been divorced! Jack Ryan was tall, handsome, Catholic and shared a name with one of Harrison Ford’s most popular onscreen characters! He went to Dartmouth, Harvard Law and Harvard Business School, made hundreds of millions of dollars as a partner at Goldman Sachs, and then, in his early 40s, left investment banking to best english, teach at an inner city school on the South Side of Chicago. With a $10 million campaign war chest from thesis contributors, and with no Republican opponent who could garner much support, Obama had an frederick taylor essay open road to become the next U.S. Senator from Illinois.
His friend and political supporter, the writing thesis, longtime Chicago alderwoman Dorothy Tillman, helped him win the voting in Chicago’s predominantly black wards. He also received valuable backing from the Jesse Jacksons, Junior and Senior, and Rev. Jackson’s Rainbow Coalition. In March 2005 Obama joined forces with the educational, Web-based, grassroots political network MoveOn -- which seeks to use its fundraising clout to push the Democratic Party ever further to the political left -- in an effort to raise campaign money for West Virginia Senator Robert Byrd’s 2006 reelection bid. Writing Thesis. In a letter to MoveOn members, Obama wrote: “You and millions of others, working through MoveOn, have helped change the frederick taylor essay, way politics works in this country.” In a 2005 commencement address, Obama described the conservative philosophy of writing thesis, government as one that promises “to give everyone one big refund on oil price, their government, divvy it up by individual portions, in the form of tax breaks, hand it out, and encourage everyone to use their share to writing conclusions, go buy their own health care, their own retirement plan, their own child care, their own education, and so on.” “In Washington,” said Obama, “they call this the Ownership Society. Frederick Taylor. But in our past there has been another term for conclusions thesis, it, Social Darwinism, every man or woman for him or herself. It's a tempting idea, because it doesn't require much thought or ingenuity.”
The fact that Obama socialized with Ayers and educational, Dohrn contradicts the statement that Obama campaign spokesman Ben LaBolt gave the writing, New York Times in 2008: 'Mr. LaBolt said the men . have not spoken by worker phone or exchanged e-mail messages since Mr. Obama began serving in writing conclusions thesis the United States Senate in January 2005 and last met more than a year ago when they bumped into each other on frederick taylor, the street in writing Hyde Park.' Obama Accuses the Bush Administration of Racism: In September 2005, Obama spoke at essay a town hall meeting of the Congressional Black Caucus. Nominally devoted to the subject of “eradicating poverty,” the meeting was replete with condemnations of writing thesis, President George W. Bush, the Republican Party, and America’s purportedly intractable racial inequities.
Obama stopped short of suggesting that the allegedly slow federal response to the victims of Hurricane Katrina (which had devastated New Orleans and the Gulf Coast earlier that month) -- especially black victims -- was motivated by racism. But he nonetheless claimed that racism was the educational paper abstracts, cause of what he perceived to be the Bush administration’s lack of sensitivity to conclusions thesis, the struggles of African Americans generally: “The incompetence was colorblind. What wasn’t colorblind was the indifference. Human efforts will always pale in comparison to nature’s forces. But [the Bush administration] is a set of folks who simply don’t recognize what’s happening in large parts of the country.” Blacks in hurricane-hit areas were poor, Obama further charged, because of the Bush administration’s “decision to give tax breaks to i want to buy, Paris Hilton instead of providing child care and education ” Obama Advocates Welfare State; Says Much Success Is Due to “Blind Luck”: Obama Endorses Dorothy Tillman, Proponent of Reparations and Admirer of Louis Farrakhan: In 2006 Obama endorsed the aforementioned Dorothy Tillman in the Third Ward race for the Chicago City Council. Conclusions. A passionate admirer of Louis Farrakhan, Tillman was a leading proponent of reparations for slavery.
Claiming that America remains “one of the paper, cruelest nations in the world when it comes to thesis, black folks,” Tillman continues to declare that the U.S. “owes blacks a debt.” In December of 2006, Obama, who by then was contemplating a run for the presidency, met in New York with billionaire financier George Soros, who previously had hosted a fundraiser for Obama during the latter’s 2004 campaign for the U.S. Senate. promoting the view that America is i want to buy institutionally an oppressive nation promoting the election of leftist political candidates throughout the United States opposing virtually all post-9/11 national security measures enacted by U.S. government, particularly the Patriot Act depicting American military actions as unjust, unwarranted, and immoral promoting open borders, mass immigration, and a watering down of conclusions, current immigration laws promoting a dramatic expansion of social welfare programs funded by ever-escalating taxes promoting social welfare benefits and amnesty for illegal aliens defending suspected anti-American terrorists and their abetters financing the best spm, recruitment and writing conclusions thesis, training of future activist leaders of the i want a dissertation, political Left advocating America’s unilateral disarmament and/or a steep reduction in its military spending opposing the conclusions thesis, death penalty in all circumstances promoting socialized medicine in the United States promoting the tenets of radical environmentalism, whose ultimate goal, as writer Michael Berliner has explained, is “not clean air and clean water, [but] rather . the demolition of research paper, technological/industrial civilization” bringing American foreign policy under the control of the writing conclusions thesis, United Nations promoting racial and ethnic preferences in academia and taylor essay, the business world alike promoting taxpayer-funded abortion-on-demand advocating stricter gun-control measures advocating the legalization of marijuana. Obama's Activities in writing thesis Support of a Socialist Bidding to Be Elected President of Kenya: McCarthy says Obama undermined U.S. relations with a strong antiterrorism ally in an African region where al-Qaida operates. In 2006 . Obama campaigned for essay, a pro-communist candidate running against Nairobi's pro-American government 'in outrageous contravention of U.S. Conclusions. policy and, probably, federal law.'
Running for President: On January 16, 2007, Obama announced the essay, creation of a presidential exploratory committee. Within hours after the announcement, Soros sent the senator a contribution of $2,100, the writing conclusions thesis, maximum amount allowable under campaign finance laws. Later that week, the New York Daily News reported that Soros would back Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton, whom he had supported in the past. Obama’s wife Michelle quickly emerged as one of the new candidate’s most vocal campaigners. In a February 2007 appearance with her husband on the television program 60 Minutes , Mrs. Obama implied that America’s allegedly rampant white racism posed a great physical threat to argumentative essay oil price, her husband. Said Mrs. Obama: “As a black man, you know, Barack can get shot going to the gas station.” In April 2007, Obama addressed the writing conclusions thesis, activist Al Sharpton’s National Action Network, telling an overflow crowd of listeners about essay oil price his success as an Illinois lawmaker in making health insurance available to writing conclusions thesis, children and reducing the cost of prescription drugs for senior citizens.
He also expressed his opposition to social worker job, racial profiling in law enforcement, detailing how he had helped pass legislation against the practice. In addition, he asserted that society must help ex-convicts escape an “economic death sentence” by securing jobs for them when they leave prison. “Jackie Kendall, executive director of the writing conclusions thesis, Midwest Academy, was on the team that developed and delivered the first Camp Obama training for volunteers aiding Obama’s campaign through the educational, 2008 Iowa Caucuses. Hans Riemer, who served as national youth vote director for the Obama campaign, said of the camp: 'We are training them, teaching them how to be effective, showing them what their role is in our strategy to writing conclusions, win the election We’re taking people from raw enthusiasm to capable organizers.' Support from i want a dissertation Jodie Evans of writing conclusions thesis, Code Pink:
In February 2007, Evans co-hosted (along with her now-deceased husband Max Palevsky and statement social worker, the Dreamworks team of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg) a key Obama fundraiser just weeks after he announced his presidential candidacy. Evans donated the maximum $2,300 to conclusions, Obama’s campaign. In April 2007, the Obama campaign announced that Evans was one of its early fundraising bundlers. In June 2008, Evans met with Obama at a high-priced fundraiser. In late August 2008, Evans attended the Democratic National Convention and, because of her status as a bundler, was invited to two private receptions with Obama and his running mate, Joe Biden. In September 2008, Evans attended two exclusive Hollywood fundraisers with Obama. Two weeks later, she met with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in New York City.
In October 2008, Evans worked with Code Pink’s Los Angeles chapter on essay, a get-out-the-vote campaign in Obama's behalf. Robert Malley and the Hamas Incident: In 2007 Obama appointed Robert Malley, the writing, Middle East and North Africa Program Director for the International Crisis Group, as a foreign policy advisor to his campaign. ICG receives funding from the Open Society Institute (whose founder, George Soros, serves on the ICG Board and Executive Committee). Prior to joining ICG, Malley had served as President Bill Clinton’s Special Assistant for Arab-Israeli Affairs (1998-2001); National Security Advisor Sandy Berger’s Executive Assistant (1996-1998); and the National Security Council’s Director for Democracy, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Affairs (1994-1996). Malley’s father, Simon Malley, had been a key figure in the Egyptian Communist Party. Rabidly anti-Israel, Simon Malley was a confidante of the late PLO leader Yasser Arafat; an inveterate critic of “Western imperialism”; a supporter of various leftist revolutionary “liberation movements,” particularly the personal job, Palestinian cause; a beneficiary of Soviet funding; and a supporter of the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
“Thanks to all of thesis, you at Planned Parenthood for all the custom admission, work that you are doing for writing conclusions, women all across the country and for families all across the taylor, countryand for men, who have enough sense to writing, realize you are helping them, all across the country. Planned Parenthood is the largest abortion provider in the United States, with some 850 clinics across the country. Research Abstracts. It purports to offer “a wide range of medical and counseling services and health care education,” but its primary business is writing providing abortion services. In 2004 Planned Parenthood completed 138 abortions for every adoption referral it made to an outside agency. During the 2004-2005 fiscal year, the organization reported 1,414 adoption referrals (one adoption for every 180 abortions).
During its 2005-2006 fiscal year, Planned Parenthood performed a record 264,943 abortions; garnered $345.1 million in custom admission essay help clinic income; took in writing conclusions $212.2 million in donations; and received record taxpayer funding of $305.3 million. Total income reached a record $902.8 million. In August 2007, Obama appeared at the national convention of the leftist political weblog Daily Kos. According to a New York Times report: Mr. Obama, who has built his candidacy upon the mantra of change, received booming applause when he was introduced to the audience of essay oil price, more than 1,500. When the moderator mentioned that the senator turned 46 years old on thesis, Saturday, several of those gathered in the ballroom began to serenade him with 'Happy Birthday.' In October 2007 Obama stated that, if elected, he would offer a high-level position in his administration to personal worker, former Vice President Al Gore. On December 4, 2007, Obama’s campaign announced the thesis, creation of its African American Religious Leadership Committee.
Among the committee's more notable members were Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. Research Paper Abstracts. Otis Moss III, and Rev. Joseph E. Lowery. From March 1972 until February 2008, Jeremiah Wright -- whom Barack Obama described as his “spiritual advisor,” his “mentor,” and “one of the greatest preachers in America” -- was the thesis, pastor of argumentative oil price, Chicago's Trinity United Church of conclusions, Christ (TUCC), where Obama had attended services since 1988, and where he (Obama) had been a member since 1992. Personal Social Worker. Said Obama of Wright: “What I value most about Pastor Wright is not his day-to-day political advice. Thesis. He’s much more of a sounding board for i want a dissertation, me to make sure that I am speaking as truthfully about what I believe as possible and conclusions, that I’m not losing myself in some of the hype and hoopla and a dissertation, stress that’s involved in national politics.” Rev. Otis Moss III -- whom Obama has extolled as a “wonderful young pastor” -- served as assistant pastor of TUCC from writing conclusions 2006-2008 and then succeeded Jeremiah Wright as pastor when the latter retired. In one notable sermon, Moss likened the condition of contemporary black Americans to that of the hapless lepers referenced in custom admission essay help biblical stories.
He further implied that whites -- who, in his estimation, continue to thesis, subjugate blacks both socially and economically -- are the “enemy” of African Americans. “Our society creates thugs,” Moss added. “Children are not born thugs. Essay. Thugs are made and thesis, not born.” Rev. Joseph Lowery is a prominent figure in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Viewing the United States as a nation that is “not committed to serious efforts to best english essay spm, address the writing conclusions, issue of racism,” he has warned that “white racism is gaining respectability again,” and that “there’s a resurgence of argumentative oil price, racism at almost every level of writing thesis, life.” Lowery has expressed contempt for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, specifically because the black conservative Thomas opposes the use of affirmative action (i.e., race preferences) in business and academia. Says Lowery: “I have told [Thomas] I am ashamed of oil price, him, because he is conclusions becoming to the black community what Benedict Arnold was to the nation he deserted; and argumentative oil price, what Judas Iscariot was to Jesus: a traitor ; and what Brutus was to Caesar: an assassin .” Another notable religious supporter of Barack Obama is thesis Rev. Michael Pfleger, a white Roman Catholic priest who has been the pastor of Saint Sabina Catholic Church in Chicago since 1981. A great admirer of Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright, Pfleger views America as a nation plagued by essay “classism and racism,” and he identifies white racism as “the number one sin in this country.” Pfleger has had a longstanding friendly relationship (since the late 1980s) with Obama and has played a significant role as a spiritual advisor who, Obama once said, had helped him maintain his moral compass. Yet another religious figure affiliated with Obama is Rev.
James Meeks, a Democratic member of the Illinois state senate, where he served alongside Obama from 2002-2004 (prior to Obama’s election to the U.S. Senate). Meeks also has been the conclusions, pastor of Chicago’s 22,000-member Salem Baptist Church since 1985, and he was once the executive vice president of Jesse Jackson’s Rainbow/PUSH coalition. For his 2008 presidential run, Obama formed a Black Advisory Council whose members included, most notably: (a) Marxist professor Cornel West, a longtime member of the Democratic Socialists of custom essay, America and writing conclusions, a great admirer of Obama’s former pastor, Rev. Jeremiah Wright; and (b) Harvard law professor Charles Ogletree, a reparations-for-slavery proponent who has advised Obama on such matters as criminal-justice reform. Obama Clearly Articulates His Desire to Remake the World and Change This Country: After Obama's victory in the Iowa Caucus, longtime Communist Party USA supporter Frank Chapman -- who had previously chaired the National Alliance Against Racist Political Oppression and served as a board member of the U.S. Peace Council, both Communist Party fronts -- wrote a letter that was published in the January 12, 2008 edition of the CPUSA publication, Peoples Weekly World : Now, beyond all the optimism I was capable of personal social, mustering, Mr. Obama won Iowa! He won in a political arena 95 percent white.
It was a resounding defeat for conclusions, the manipulations of the i want, ultra-right and writing, their right-liberal fellow travelers. Also it was a hard lesson for liberals who underestimated the political fury of the masses in these troubled times. Accusing Republicans of custom admission, Having Failed Minorities: During a Democratic presidential debate on January 21, 2008, Obama expressed his belief that Republican politicians had failed to provide adequate opportunities for the social and economic advancement of minorities: “I am absolutely convinced that white, black, Latino, Asian, people want to move beyond our divisions, and they want to writing thesis, join together in statement social order to create a movement for change in this country. The Republicans may have a different attitude. The policies that they have promoted have not been good at providing ladders for upward mobility and conclusions thesis, opportunity for all people.” Tony Rezko, the best english essay, Federally Indicted Real-Estate Developer:
Also in January 2008, Obama’s relationship with a federally indicted real estate developer came to light when rival candidate Hillary Clinton said, during a South Carolina Democratic Party presidential debate: “I was fighting against [Republican] ideas when you were practicing law and writing conclusions, representing your contributor, Rezko, in his slum landlord business in inner city Chicago.” Clinton’s reference was to Tony Rezko, a Syrian-born, Chicago-based restaurateur and real estate developer who had been one of the first major financial contributors to Barack Obama’s political campaigns in the 1990s. For a full explanation of Rezko’s relationship with Obama, see footnote number  . At a February 12, 2008 campaign stop in Wisconsin, Obama said: The politics of frederick essay, hope does not mean hoping things come easy. Because nothing worthwhile in this country has ever happened unless somebody somewhere stood up when it was hard, stood up when they were told, no you can't, and writing conclusions thesis, said, yes we can. And where better to affirm our ideals than here in essay Wisconsin, where a century ago the progressive movement was born. It was rooted in the principle that the voices of the people can speak louder than special interests, that citizens can be connected to their government and to one another, and that all of us share a common destiny, an American Dream. On other occasions, Obama described himself as a pragmatic progressive who tries to make decisions based on what works.
Praise from Louis Farrakhan: In February 2008 Louis Farrakhan called Obama “a herald of the Messiah.” “Barack has captured the youth,” said the conclusions, Nation Of Islam leader, referring to the passionate support Obama had drawn from young people in America. “And he has involved young people in a political process that they didn’t care anything about. That’s a sign. When the messiah speaks, the youth will hear. And the messiah is absolutely speaking.” In March 2008 the controversial Al Sharpton, a strong supporter of Obama’s presidential candidacy, revealed publicly that he was in the habit of speaking to Obama on a regular basis -- “two or three times a week.” Sharpton also said that he had told Obama four months earlier, “I won’t either endorse you or not endorse you.
But I will tell you I can be freer not endorsing you to help you and everybody else.” According to Sharpton, Obama then protested and asked for abstracts, his public support: “No, no, no. I want you to endorse.” In early 2008, MoveOn executive director Eli Pariser announced that he and his organization were endorsing Obama for U.S. President. Writing Conclusions. “We’ve learned that the key to achieving change in Washington without compromising core values is having a galvanized electorate to back you up,” said Pariser, “and Barack Obama has our members ‘fired up and best essay spm, ready to go’ on that front.” In April 2008 Ahmed Yousef, a political advisor for the terrorist group Hamas, told interviewer Aaron Klein that his (Yousef’s) organization was hopeful that Obama would win the conclusions, presidential election and change America’s foreign policy vis a vis the Arab-Israeli conflict. I Want A Dissertation. When reporters subsequently asked Obama what he thought of the Hamas leader’s endorsement, Obama said: “My position on writing conclusions, Hamas is statement worker job indistinguishable from the position of Hillary Clinton or [Republican presidential candidate] John McCain. I said they are a terrorist organization, and writing conclusions thesis, I've repeatedly condemned them. I’ve repeatedly said, and I mean what I say: Since they are a terrorist organization, we should not be dealing with them until they recognize Israel, renounce terrorism, and abide by frederick taylor essay previous agreements.” During an conclusions April 2008 campaign stop in San Francisco, Obama said: “You go into some of these small towns in Pennsylvania, and taylor essay, like a lot of thesis, small towns in the Midwest, the best english spm, jobs have been gone now for writing conclusions thesis, 25 years, and nothing’s replaced them. And they fell through the Clinton administration and the Bush administration, and i want to buy, each successive administration has said that somehow these communities are gonna regenerate, and thesis, they have not. And it’s not surprising then they get bitter, they cling to guns or religion or antipathy to people who aren't like them or anti-immigrant sentiment or anti-trade sentiment as a way to explain their frustrations.”
Anthony Lake, Foreign Policy Advisor: In June 2008, Obama named former New Leftist Anthony Lake as one of his leading foreign policy advisors. Admission. Lake served as a special assistant for national security affairs under President Nixon in conclusions 1969-70, but soon thereafter he stepped down from that post to essay, protest the Nixon administration’s bombing raids in Cambodia -- raids that were designed to support the existing government against writing thesis, the power-grabbing efforts of Pol Pot and his bloodthirsty Khmer Rouge. At a June 2008 campaign stop in Jacksonville, Florida, Obama suggested that his political opponents were trying to exploit the issue of race to frederick, undermine his candidacy. “It is going to be very difficult for conclusions, Republicans to run on their stewardship of the economy or their outstanding foreign policy,” he said. “We know what kind of campaign they’re going to admission help, run. They’re going to conclusions, try to make you afraid.
They’re going to try to best essay spm, make you afraid of me. He’s young and inexperienced and he’s got a funny name. And did I mention he’s black?” Speaking at a July 2008 gathering of hundreds of minority journalists in Chicago, Obama said the United States should acknowledge its history of poor treatment of certain ethnic groups: “There's no doubt that when it comes to our treatment of Native Americans as well as other persons of color in thesis this country, we've got some very sad and difficult things to account for. I personally would want to see our tragic history, or the tragic elements of our history, acknowledged.
I consistently believe that when it comes to whether it's Native Americans or African-American issues or reparations, the oil price, most important thing for the U.S. government to writing, do is not just offer words, but offer deeds.” Joe Biden, Running Mate: In August 2008, Obama named Senator Joe Biden to best, be his vice presidential running mate. Fannie Mae . has been under increasing pressure from the Clinton Administration to expand mortgage loans among low and moderate income people and felt pressure from conclusions stock holders to maintain its phenomenal growth in profits. In addition, banks, thrift institutions and mortgage companies have been pressing Fannie Mae to help them make more loans to personal statement social job, so-called subprime borrowers. These borrowers whose incomes, credit ratings and savings are not good enough to qualify for thesis, conventional loans, can only get [so-called 'subprime'] loans from finance companies that charge much higher interest rates -- anywhere from three to four percentage points higher than conventional loans. Demographic information on these borrowers is sketchy. But at least one study indicates that 18 percent of the loans in the subprime market went to black borrowers, compared to 5 per cent of loans in the conventional loan market. In moving, even tentatively, into this new area of lending, Fannie Mae is taking on significantly more risk, which may not pose any difficulties during flush economic times. Worker Job. But the government-subsidized corporation may run into trouble in thesis an economic downturn, prompting a government rescue similar to that of the savings and loan industry in admission the 1980's.
The Editors of National Review Online explain the connection between the thesis, foregoing policies and Barack Obama: One of the reasons so many bad mortgage loans were made in the first place is that Barack Obama’s celebrated community organizers make their careers out of forcing banks to research paper, do so. ACORN, for which Obama worked, is one of writing conclusions thesis, many left-wing organizations that spent decades pressuring banks and bank regulators to do more to essay, make mortgages available to people without much in the way of income, assets, or credit. These campaigns often were couched in racially inflammatory terms. The result was the Community Reinvestment Act. Writing Conclusions Thesis. The CRA empowers the FDIC and other banking regulators to punish those banks which do not lend to the poor and minorities at the level that Obama’s fellow community organizers would like. Among other things, mergers and acquisitions can be blocked if CRA inquisitors are not satisfied that their demands which are political demands have been met. There is a name for loans made to people who do not have the credit, assets, income, or down payment to admission essay, qualify for a normal mortgage: subprime.
As Forbes magazine points out, Obama has been a staunch supporter of the CRA throughout his public life. In an October 15, 2008 presidential debate, Republican John McCain raised the issue of Obama’s ties to ACORN. Conclusions. At the frederick taylor essay, time, ACORN was in the news for two major reasons. First, the organization was under investigation in 14 separate states for massive voter fraud. Strongly pro-Democrat, ACORN claimed to have registered 4 million new voters (most of whom were Democrats) during the writing, preceding four years.
Many tens of thousands of these registrations already had been found to be fraudulent -- they bore phony names, fake or nonexistent addresses, inaccurate personal information, duplicate signatures, etc. The full extent of the fraud, however, was impossible to determine. “The only involvement I’ve had with ACORN was I represented them alongside the U.S. Best. Justice Department in making Illinois implement a motor voter law that helped people get registered at DMVs. ACORN is writing conclusions thesis a community organization. Apparently what they’ve done is they were paying people to go out and register folks, and apparently some of the people who were out there didn’t really register people, they just filled out personal statement social job, a bunch of names. It had nothing to do with us. We were not involved.” He said nothing about the thesis, years he had spent training ACORN activists; nothing about the laudatory statements he had made about ACORN in the recent past; and nothing about the $800,000+ his campaign had given to the ACORN front group Citizens' Services Inc. (an ACORN-dominated subsidiary whose headquarters were located at precisely the same address as ACORN's national headquarters in New Orleans, Louisiana) to fund his campaign's 2008 voter-registration efforts. To conceal the purpose of spm, these payments to ACORN and Citizens' Services Inc., the Obama campaign misidentified the $800,000+ payment as money that had been spent for election services. Well, first of all my relationship with ACORN is pretty straightforward.
It’s probably 13 years ago when I was still practicing law, I represented ACORN and writing conclusions, my partner in personal social worker job that investigation was the US Justice department in having Illinois implement what was called the motor voter law, to make sure people could go to DMV’s and driver license facilities to get registered. It wasn’t being implemented. That was my relationship and conclusions thesis, is my relationship to english essay, ACORN. Conclusions. There is an ACORN organization in frederick taylor Chicago. Thesis. They’ve been active.
As an essay elected offiical, I’ve had interactions with them. But, they’re not advising my campaign. We’ve got the best voter registration in politics right now and we don’t need ACORN’s help. Obama's statements from the aforementioned debate and interview are contradicted, however, but the words he himself had spoken in other venues. Thesis. For example, during his presidential campaign, Obama was a featured speaker at one particularly notable political event in which ACORN played a prominent role -- a December 1, 2007 forum exclusively for thousands of community organizers from across the United States. Frederick Essay. He was inroduced to the crowd by Deepak Bhargava, ACORN's leader of community reinvestment and fair housing (and Executive Director of the writing conclusions, Center for Community Change). In his introductory remarks, Bhargava characterized America as a society that is still deeply structured by racism and sexism.
When Obama took the microphone (to thunderous applause), he did not refute Bhargava's comments in any way. He was then asked, If elected President of the best english, United States, would you agree, in your first one-hundred days, to meet with a delegation of representatives from these various community organizations . Thesis. Obama replied: Yes, but let me even say, before I even get inaugurated, during the transition we're gonna be calling all of admission essay, you in to writing, help us shape the custom help, agenda. We're gonna be having meetings all across the country with community organizations so that you have input into the agenda for the next presidency of the United States of America. Similarly, in writing conclusions an interview with ACORN representatives in 2007, candidate Obama said the following: You know you've got a friend in best me.
And I definitely welcome ACORN's input. You don't have to ask me about writing that. Custom Admission. I'm going to call you even if you didn't ask me. When I ran Project Vote, the voter registration drive in thesis Illinois, ACORN was smack dab in the middle of argumentative oil price, it. Once I was elected, there wasn't a campaign that ACORN worked on down in Springfield that I wasn't right there with you. Since I have been in writing the United States Senate I've been always a partner with ACORN as well. I've been fighting with ACORN, along side ACORN, on issues you care about my entire career. In 2008, Obama's presidential campaign furnished the ACORN affiliate Project Vote with a list of donors who had already contributed (to the campaign) the maximum amount of money permitted by law. Anita Moncrief, a former Washington, DC staffer for Project Vote, later revealed that her organization had contacted these big donors and urged them to to buy, give money to Project Vote -- money which could then be funneled directly into the Obama campaign coffers, thereby evading election-law limits on campaign contributions. F oreign Contributions to Presidential Campaign: A Federal Election Commission (FEC) employee has reportedly been warning for months about evidence that the Obama campaign has received as much as $200 million, almost half of conclusions, his total donations, in amounts less than $200.
That is below the threshold for frederick taylor essay, donor information [which] Mr. Obama has chose[n] to report to writing thesis, the FEC -- unlike the oil price, Clinton and McCain campaigns, which have reported all donor information. In August 2008, Pamela Geller wrote, in the American Thinker , that among the myriad foreign donations Obama had received was a $33,000 contribution from writing Palestinian brothers based in the Hamas-controlled Rafah refugee camp in Gaza, who had proudly declared their love for i want to buy, Obama. The Obama campaign claimed that it had returned that money to the brother donors, but the latter said they had never received such a return. Moreover, Geller catalogued several dozen of the foreign cities and nations from which illegal contributions to the Obama campaign had originated. In many cases, the donors' names and contact information were fraudulent -- sometimes consisting of nothing more than letters arranged in random, nonsensical sequence.
On October 30, 2008, Obama told a large crowd of writing conclusions thesis, cheering supporters: We are five days away from to buy a dissertation fundamentally transforming the writing conclusions, United States of America. What makes Obama different is that he has also been a community organiser. He has read left literature, including my works, and he understands what socialism is. A lot of the people working with him are, indeed, socialists with backgrounds in the Communist Party or as independent Marxists. There are a lot of people like that in Chicago who have worked with him for years. Obama’s Policy Positions and Voting Record as State Senator, U.S. Senator, and Presidential Candidate: During his eight-year career in the Illinois state senate, Barack Obama avoided making controversial votes approximately 130 times -- which, according to other Illinois state senators, is much higher than average. Rather than vote yea or nay on the legislation in question, Obama on those occasions simply voted present.
In the Illinois state senate, this was the equivalent of argumentative oil price, a nay vote when tallying up support or opposition to writing conclusions thesis, a given bill. But, as David Freddoso points out: [F]or rhetorical purposes, a 'present' vote is different in that critics and journalists must discuss it differently. For example, Barack Obama did not vote against a bill to prevent pornographic book and video stores and strip clubs from i want to buy a dissertation setting up within 1,000 feet of schools and churches -- he just voted 'present.' Obama voted 'present' on an almost unanimously passed bill to prosecute students as adults if they fire guns on conclusions thesis, schol grounds. Personal Worker Job. He voted 'present' on conclusions, the partial-birth abortion ban and other contentious issues .  Obama favors racial preferences for minorities in university admissions, public employment, and admission help, state contracting. Writing Conclusions Thesis. “I still believe in affirmative action as a means of argumentative essay oil price, overcoming both historic and potentially current discrimination,” said Obama in April 2008.
[W]henever we define a pre-viable fetus as a person that is protected by the equal protection clause or other elements in the Constitution, what we're really saying is, in fact, that they are persons that are entitled to the kinds of protections that would be provided to a -- a child, a nine-month-old -- child that was delivered to term. Conclusions. That determination, then, essentially, if it was accepted by i want a dissertation a court, would forbid abortions to take place. For that reason, I think it would probably be found unconstitutional. As David Freddoso observes, Obama's argument: implies that babies born prematurely without abortions might not be 'persons.' They might have to writing conclusions thesis, be 'nine months old' before they count. [O]ne might even conclude from [his words] that he actually does think they are persons. But, he argues, we cannot legally recognize them as 'persons.' Because if we do, then somewhere down the road it might threaten someone's right to research paper abstracts, an abortion.
Barack Obama's actions indicate he thinks that before any other rights are granted to 'persons,' the Constitution exists to guarantee abortion rights.  Though it did not in any way conflict with, or compromise, Roe v. Wade , Obama voted against this same legislation in 2003. As chair of the conclusions, Health and Human Services Committee, he blocked another attempt to bring the bill to the floor of the argumentative oil price, Illinois Senate. As I understand it, this [bill] puts the burden on conclusions, the attending physician who has determined, since they were performing this procedure, that, in fact, this is a nonviable fetus; that if that fetus, or child however way you want to describe it is now outside the mother’s womb and the doctor continues to help, think that it’s nonviable but there’s, let’s say, movement or some indication that, in fact, they’re not just coming out conclusions, limp and dead, that, in fact, they would then have to call a second physician to monitor and check off and make sure that this is not a live child that could be saved. But Obama knew quite well that children were being born alive and were not looked after by the abortion doctors; that in 10 to educational research paper, 20 percent of the cases where induced labor abortion was practiced, the infants survived and were then being left, uncared for, to die; and that these facts were precisely what had prompted the legislation in the first place. In committee he took the opinion of the ACLU attorney and said that he thought that this would be something that would overturn Roe v. Wade , and he opposed it in committee, and writing conclusions thesis, then he took a leadership role opposing this to go on and be the sole senator to speak against this bill on the Senate floor, not once, but two years in argumentative a row. And he brags on writing conclusions, his Web site now that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to defeat this bill.
He said on the Senate floor as a matter of to buy, fact that he thought that this would ultimately be considered unconstitutional, and he said that he strategized with Planned Parenthood to vote present because in Illinois a present vote is the same as a no vote. And he thought by doing this that he would lure some squeamish senators who didn't really want to vote to endorse infanticide. In 2006 Obama voted “Yes” on a Senate Budget amendment allocating $100 million to: “increas[e] funding and access to family planning services”; “fun[d] legislation that requires equitable prescription coverage for contraceptives under health plans”; and “fun[d] legislation that would create and expand teen pregnancy prevention programs and education programs concerning emergency contraceptives.”  Well, you know, I think that whether you're looking at it from a theological perspective or a scientific perspective, answering that question with specificity, you know, is above my pay grade. “Latinos have such a high dropout rate. What you see consistently are children at a very early age are starting school already behind.
That’s why I’ve said that I’m going to thesis, put billions of research abstracts, dollars into early childhood education that makes sure that our African-American youth, Latino youth, poor youth of every race, are getting the kind of help that they need so that they know their numbers, their colors, their letters.”  Obama opposed the Supreme Court’s 2007 split decision that invalidated programs in Seattle and Louisville (Kentucky) which sought to maintain “diversity” in local schools by factoring race into decisions about writing thesis which students could be admitted to any particular school, or which students could be allowed to personal statement, transfer from one school to writing conclusions thesis, another. Under these programs, parents were not free to send their children to the schools of their choice. Instead they were obliged to personal social, abide by writing thesis the quotas preordained by bureaucrats who had never met any of the children whose educational lives they sought to micromanage. Both the Seattle and personal statement job, Louisville programs were representative of similar plans in hundreds of other school districts nationwide. In 1997 Obama opposed an Illinois welfare-reform bill, proposed by Republican senator Dave Syverson, which sought to move as many people as possible off the state welfare rolls and into paying jobs. He tried to weaken the writing conclusions, legislation by calling for exceptions not only to the requirement that welfare recipients make an effort to educational research paper, find employment, but also to the bill's proposed five-year limit on benefits. My commitment is to make sure that we've got universal healthcare for all Americans by writing conclusions the end of my first term as President.
I would hope that we can set up a system that allows those who can go through their employer to access a federal system or a state pool of admission essay help, some sort. But I don't think we're going to be able to eliminate employer coverage immediately. There's going to be, potentially, some transition process. I can envision a decade out, or 15 years out, or 20 years out. On April 3, 2007, Obama said: Let's say that I proposed a plan that moved to a single payer system. Let's say Medicare Plus. It'd be essentially everybody can buy into conclusions Medicare for example. Transitioning a system is a very difficult and costly and job, lengthy enterprise. It's not like you can turn on a switch and you go from conclusions one system to another. So it's possible that upfront you would need not just, I mean, you might need an additional $90 or $100 billion a year.
On August 4, 2007, Obama said: This [health care] is a two-trillion dollar part of our economy. Oil Price. And it is conclusions my belief that, not just politically but also economically, it's better for us to taylor essay, start getting a system in writing conclusions place, a universal health care system signed into law by the end of my first term as president, and build off that system to further, to make it more rational. By the way, Canada did not start off immediately with a single payer system. They had a similar transition step.
On November 21, 2007, Obama said he favored the implementation of a transitional system building on the existing systems that we have. He elaborated: [T]ransitional hopefully because the system currently is taylor so, such a patchwork of inefficiency that over time I would want to see Medicaid, Medicare, the writing conclusions, children's health insurance program, SCHIP -- all those integrated more effectively. In the summer of 2008, when asked by a campaign audience about a dissertation single-payer healthcare, Obama said, If I were designing a system from scratch, I would probably go ahead with a single-payer [government-run] system . my attitude is let’s build up the conclusions thesis, system we got, let’s make it more efficient, we maybe over time . decide that there are other ways for us to personal statement social worker, provide care more effectively. (Obama would sound this theme again in June 2009, when he told an unreceptive American Medical Association: I'll be honest, there are countries where a single-payer system works pretty well.) “It is hard to writing conclusions thesis, overstate the degree to which our addiction to oil undermines our future. A large portion of the $800 million we spend on foreign oil every day goes to some of the world's most volatile regimes. And there are the environmental consequences. Just about every scientist outside the to buy, White House believes climate change is real. Writing Conclusions Thesis. We cannot drill our way out of the custom admission help, problem. Instead of subsidizing the oil industry, we should end every single tax break the industry currently receives and demand that 1% of the writing conclusions thesis, revenues from best spm oil companies with over $1 billion in quarterly profits go toward financing alternative energy research and infrastructure.” At a July 30, 2008 campaign stop in Missouri, Obama said: “There are things that you can do individually . to save energy; making sure your tires are properly inflated, simple thing, but we could save all the oil that they’re talking about getting off [from] drilling, if everybody was just inflating their tires and getting regular tune-ups. You could actually save just as much.”
To produce five gallons of ethanol from corn, one must spend the energy equivalent of roughly four galons of ethanol for farming, shipping, and processing. (In other words, ethanol has a 25 percent net energy yield.) . America's entire 6.5 billion gallon ethanol production created the net energy equivalent of 2.2 days' worth of American gasoline consumption.  (Emphasis in original) In exchange for that miniscule output, adds Freddoso, federal and state governments provide between $6.3 billion and $8.7 billion in thesis annual direct and indirect subsidies. When government subsidized corn ethanol production in 2007, it was like spending $9.00 to essay, create a gallon of gasoline, and doing it 853 million times.  “When I was asked earlier about the issue of coal, you know, under my plan of a cap and trade system, electricity rates would necessarily skyrocket. Even regardless of what I say about whether coal is writing good or bad. Because I’m capping greenhouse gases, coal power plants, you know, natural gas, you name it, whatever the plants were, whatever the industry was, uh, they would have to retrofit their operations. That will cost money. They will pass that money on to consumers.” “Global warming is personal statement job real, is happening now and is the result of human activities. The number of Category 4 and thesis, 5 hurricanes has almost doubled in the last 30 years. Admission Help. Glaciers are melting faster; the polar ice caps are shrinking; trees are blooming earlier; oceans are becoming more acidic, threatening marine life; people are dying in heat waves; species are migrating, and eventually many will become extinct.
Scientists predict that absent major emission reductions, climate change will worsen famine and drought in some of the writing thesis, poorest places in the world and wreak havoc across the globe. In the taylor, U.S., sea-level rise threatens to conclusions thesis, cause massive economic and ecological damage to frederick essay, our populated coastal areas.”  During a 2008 campaign stop in Oregon, Obama called on the United States to “lead by example” on global warming. Thesis. “We can’t drive our SUVs and eat as much as we want and keep our homes on 72 degrees at educational research paper abstracts all times . and conclusions thesis, then just expect that other countries are going to say OK,” he said. “That’s not leadership. Educational Paper Abstracts. That’s not going to happen.” In 2004 Obama spoke out against the Republican-led Congress' budgets generally, and against the 2001 anti-terrorism bill known as the Patriot Act specifically, suggesting that the Act infringed upon Americans' civil liberties. Said Obama: When you rush these budgets that are a foot high, and nobody has any idea what's in writing conclusions them and nobody has read them . It gets rushed through without any clear deliberation or debate, then these kind of things happen, and I think this is in some ways what happened to the Patriot Act. I mean, you remember, there was no real debate about admission essay help that.
It was so quick after 9/11 that it was introduced, that people felt very intimidated by the [Bush] administration. Obama voted “No” on writing, a bill to remove the need for a FISA [Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act] warrant before the government may proceed with wiretapping in terrorism-related investigations of suspects in other countries. Statement Social Worker. “Warrantless surveillance of American citizens, in defiance of FISA, is unlawful and unconstitutional,” said Obama.  “Why don’t we close Guantanamo and restore the right of writing thesis, habeas corpus, because that’s how we lead, not with the might of our military, but the power of our ideals and the power of our values. It’s time to show the world we’re not a country that ships prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far off countries.” On June 19, 2008, political analyst Dick Morris described Obama's prescription for taylor, dealing with terrorism as follows: [Obama has] urged us to thesis, go back to the era of criminal-justice prosecution of terror suspects, citing the successful efforts to imprison those who bombed the World Trade Center in 1993. [He said] 'It is my firm belief that we can crack down on threats against the United States, but we can do so within the constraints of our Constitution. In previous terrorist attacks -- for example, the first attack against the World Trade Center, we were able to arrest those responsible, put them on custom admission, trial. They are currently in U.S. prisons, incapacitated.' The War in Afghanistan and the Iraq War: In July of '04 [you said]: 'I'm not privy to Senate intelligence reports. What would I have done? I don't know,' in terms of how you would have voted on the war [in 2002].
In June 2006 Obama spoke out against the idea of setting a firm withdrawal date for U.S. troops in writing Iraq. Immediately after the argumentative essay, midterm election five months later, however, Obama declared that it was vital to writing conclusions, change our policy and to bring home all American troops. In January 2007 Obama proposed legislation calling for the withdrawal of all troops within 14 months. “. would immediately begin to best english spm, pull out troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of writing thesis, one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of . Educational Research. He would call for a new constitutional convention in writing Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to paper abstracts, surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the writing conclusions thesis, region on behalf of a new regional security compact. And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of frederick taylor, potential war crimes.” Claiming that the U.S. presence in Iraq was “illegal,” Obama campaigned publicly in 2007 and 2008 for conclusions thesis, a speedy withdrawal of American troops from Iraq.
But in essay a July 2008 discussion he held with Iraqi leaders in Baghdad, Obama privately tried to persuade them to delay an agreement on a timetable for such a withdrawal until after the November elections. According to Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari, “He asked why we were not prepared to writing conclusions thesis, delay an agreement until after the U.S. elections and the formation of a new administration in Washington. However, as an Iraqi, I prefer to have a security agreement that regulates the activities of argumentative oil price, foreign troops, rather than keeping the writing, matter open.” “Because . Statement Social Job. it's pretty straightforward. By us putting $10 billion to $12 billion a month, $200 billion, that's money that could have gone into Afghanistan. Those additional troops could have gone into Afghanistan. That money also could have been used to shore up a declining economic situation in the United States. Conclusions. That money could have been applied to paper, having a serious energy security plan so that we were reducing our demand on oil, which is writing conclusions helping to taylor, fund the conclusions, insurgents in many countries. So those are all factors that would be taken into consideration in i want to buy my decision -- to deal with a specific tactic or strategy inside of writing thesis, Iraq.” In mid-July 2008, the i want, portions of conclusions thesis, Obama's campaign website that had emphasized his opposition to best english essay spm, the troop surge and conclusions, his statement that more troops would not change the i want to buy, course of the writing conclusions, war, were suddenly removed. On the matter of using enhanced interrogation techniques (such as waterboarding) on high-level terrorist suspects, Obama emphatically pledged to end that practice: “This means ending the practices of shipping away prisoners in the dead of night to be tortured in far-off countries, of admission essay, detaining thousands without charge or trial, of writing conclusions, maintaining a network of secret prisons to jail people beyond the reach of law.
That will be my position as president. Statement Worker. That includes renditions.” Which passages of scripture should guide our public policy? Should we go with Leviticus, which suggests slavery is OK and that eating shellfish is an abomination? Or we could go with Deuteronomy which suggests stoning your child if he strays from the faith. Writing Conclusions Thesis. Or should we just stick to Sermon on the Mount, a passage that is so radical that it's doubtful that our own Defense Department would survive its application. Obama has consistently opposed America's development of best spm, a missile defense system. In a February 2008 campaign ad, he stated: “I will cut tens of billions of conclusions, dollars in personal statement social wasteful spending.
I will cut investments in unproven missile defense systems. I will not weaponize space. I will slow our development of future combat systems. I will institute an independent Defense Priorities Board to ensure that the Quadrennial Defense Review is not used to justify unnecessary defense spending. I will set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons. To seek that goal, I will not develop new nuclear weapons. I will seek a global ban on writing, the production of essay, fissile material.” Redistribution of Wealth: You know, if you look at writing thesis the victories and failures of the civil-rights movement, and frederick taylor, its litigation strategy in the court, I think where it succeeded was to writing conclusions thesis, vest formal rights in previously dispossessed peoples. So that I would now have the right to vote, I would now be able to sit at a lunch counter and essay, order and as long as I could pay for it, I’d be okay, but the writing conclusions thesis, Supreme Court never entered into the issues of redistribution of wealth, and research abstracts, sort of more basic issues of political and economic justice in writing conclusions this society. A caller then asked: “The gentleman [Obama] made the point that the Warren Court wasn’t terribly radical.
My question is (with economic changes) my question is, is it too late for that kind of reparative work, economically, and is that the appropriate place for reparative economic work to change place?” You know, I’m not optimistic about oil price bringing about major redistributive change through the courts. The institution just isn’t structured that way. You start getting into writing thesis all sorts of separation of job, powers issues, you know, in writing thesis terms of the court monitoring or engaging in a process that essentially is administrative and takes a lot of time. You know, the court is just not very good at it, and politically, it’s just very hard to legitimize opinions from the i want to buy a dissertation, court in writing conclusions thesis that regard. In October 2008, Bill Whittle of National Review Online analyzed Obama's words (from 2001) as follows: There is nothing vague or ambiguous about best english spm this. Nothing. His plan would boost the top marginal [income tax] rate to well over 55 percentbefore the inclusion of state and local taxesresulting in many individuals seeing their marginal tax rate double. Senator Obama would end the Bush tax cuts and allow the top two tax rates to return to 36 and 39.6 percent.
He also would allow personal exemptions and writing conclusions, deductions to be phased out for those with income over $250,000 [and] would end the Social Security payroll tax cap for those over $250,000 in earnings. (The cap is currently set at social worker job $102,000.) These individuals will then face a tax rate of 15.65 percent from thesis payroll taxes and the top income tax rate of personal social, 39.6 percent for a combined top rate of over writing thesis 56 percent on each additional dollar earned. In an April 2008 Democratic primary debate, Obama was asked, by journalist Charlie Gibson, a question about his proposal to nearly double the personal worker job, capital gains tax (from 15 percent to 28 percent). Said Gibson: “ In each instance when the rate dropped [in the 1990s], revenues from the tax increased. The government took in more money. Writing Thesis. And in the 1980s, when the [capital gains] tax was increased to custom, 28 percent, the writing, revenues went down. So why raise it at argumentative all, especially given the fact that 100 million people in thesis this country own stock and would be affected?” Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama’s plan to cut taxes on frederick taylor, 95 percent of writing conclusions thesis, taxpayers would effectively increase government spending by a dissertation an average of $64.8 billion a year and effectively raise income tax rates for many Americans, even on some earning $20-$50,000 per thesis, year, according to the non-partisan Tax Policy Center.
The net result of the tax plan, according to the figures above, will be to increase by more than 25 percent the number of households that pay no taxes at all, thereby effectively increasing the size of the welfare state. At an best english essay spm October 2008 campaign appearance in Ohio, Obama was approached by thesis a man named Joe Wurzelbacher (who thereafter would become widely known in the media as “Joe the plumber”). Wurzelbacher told Obama that he was planning to purchase a business which was projected to earn in excess of $250,000 per hear, and that Obama’s tax plan, which would raise taxes (by 8.5 percent) on all small businesses earning over $250,000, would impose an unfair financial burden on him. Obama replied that the tax increase on businesses like his was justified because it would enable the government to argumentative, give tax breaks to people earning considerably less than $250,000. “I think when you spread the writing thesis, wealth around, it’s good for everybody,” said Obama. Earmarking refers to the commonplace congressional practice of directing federal tax dollars to local projects which are often frivolous and of extremely limited utility. Frederick. In fiscal year 2008, Obama was the sole Senate sponsor of 29 earmarks whose aggregate sum was $10.7 million. Thesis. Earmarks are often informal quid pro quo arrangements, where recipients show gratitude by giving money to the political official who steered the paper abstracts, earmarks their way.
For example, after Obama inserted earmarks into a 2008 defense appropriations bill, the recipients sent $16,000 in contributions to Obama's presidential campaign. In 1998 Obama proposed the conclusions thesis, creation of a study panel to examine the feasibility of having the government regulate and frederick essay, cap automobile insurance rates. In January 2000 he spoke out in favor of price controls for prescription drugs. A year later he called for the establishment of a five-person government review board to place a cap on drug prices in Illinois. To read economist Thomas Sowell's explanation of why price controls have historically failed to writing thesis, lower costs or improve products and services, click here.  In September 2005, Obama sponsored Senate Concurrent Resolution 53, which expressed the oil price, sense of Congress that any effort to impose photo identification requirements for voting should be rejected. “I will never walk away from the 12 million undocumented immigrants who live, work, and contribute to our country every single day. In July 2008, Obama again spoke to NCLR. Among his remarks were the following: “The theme of this [La Raza] conference is the work of your lives: strengthening America together. It's been the work of this organization for writing conclusions thesis, four decades --lifting up families and transforming communities across America. And for that, I honor you, I congratulate you, I thank you, and I wish you another forty years as extraordinary as your last.
The U.S. Border Control (USBC), a nonprofit citizen's lobby dedicated to ending illegal immigration and securing America’s borders, reports that Obama’s immigration-related votes are consistent with USBC’s values only argumentative 8 percent of the time. By USBC’s definition, Obama’s stance on thesis, immigration qualifies him as an statement worker “open borders” advocate. Obama voted against a bill to writing conclusions, declare English the official language of the U.S. Argumentative Essay. government. Under this bill, no person would be entitled to have the government communicate with him (or provide materials for him) in any language other than English. Nothing in writing thesis the bill, however, prohibited the use of a language other than English.
“When we get in a tussle, we appeal to the Founding Fathers and the Constitution’s ratifiers to give direction. Some, like Justice Scalia, conclude that the original understanding must be followed and if we obey this rule, democracy is respected. Others, like Justice Breyer, insist that sometimes the original understanding can take you only so far -- that on the truly big arguments, we have to take context, history, and the practical outcomes of a decision into account. I have to side with Justice Breyer’s view of the Constitution -- that it is i want to buy a dissertation not a static but rather a living document and must be read in the context of an ever-changing world.” When President Bush in 2005 nominated John Roberts to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Obama stated that few Supreme Court cases involve any controversy at all, “so that both a [conservative like] Scalia and a [leftist like] Ginsburg will arrive at the same place most of the time on those 95 percent of thesis, cases.” In the other 5 percent, he said, “the critical ingredient” was neither the law nor the argumentative oil price, Constitution says, but rather “what is in the judge’s heart.” “[W]hen I examined Judge Roberts’ record and history of public service, it is thesis my personal estimation that he has far more often used his formidable skills on behalf of the strong in custom admission help opposition to conclusions thesis, the weak. In his work in the White House and the Solicitor General’s Office, he seemed to have consistently sided with those who were dismissive of efforts to eradicate the remnants of racial discrimination in our political process.
In these same positions, he seemed dismissive of concerns that it is harder to make it in this world and in to buy a dissertation this economy when you are a woman rather than a man.” Obama was also “deeply troubled” by “the philosophy, ideology and record” of yet another Bush nominee to the Supreme Court, Samuel Alito. “There is no indication that he [Alito] is not a man of fine character,” Obama said in a floor speech on writing conclusions, January 26, 2006. “But when you look at his record, when it comes to his understanding of the Constitution, I found that in almost every case he consistently sides on behalf of the best english, powerful against the powerless.” “In contrast to his soaring campaign rhetoric about bringing America together, Obama’s Senate speeches against Roberts and Alito revealed a polarizing vision of America. Minorities, women, employees and criminal defendants were among the weak; majorities, men, employers and writing conclusions thesis, prosecutors were among the strong.” In April 2007, newsman Wolf Blitzer asked Obama, Are there . Justices right now upon custom admission help, whom you would model [appointments to the Supreme Court]? Obama replied, Well, you know, I think actually Justice [Stephen] Breyer, Justice [Ruth Bader] Ginsburg are very sensible judges. I think that Justice [David] Souter . is a sensible judge. We need somebody who's got the heart, the empathy, to recognize what it's like to be a young teenage mom, the empathy to writing conclusions thesis, understand what it's like to be poor or African-American or gay or disabled or old--and that's the i want to buy, criterion by which I'll be selecting my judges.
I've spent my entire adult life working with SEIU. I'm not a newcomer to writing conclusions, this. I didn't just suddenly discover SEIU. I Want To Buy. Your agenda's been my agenda in the United States Senate. Before debating health care, I talked to [SEIU President] Andy Stern and SEIU members. Before immigration debates took place in Washington, I talked with [SEIU Executive Vice President] Eliseo Medina and SEIU members. Conclusions. Before the EFCA [Employee Free Choice Act], I talked to SEIU. Obama supports an personal statement social initiative known as the Global Poverty Act (GPA), which, if signed into law, would compel the U.S. Thesis. President to develop “and implement” a policy to “cut extreme global poverty in half by 2015 through aid, trade, debt relief,” and other means.
“With billions of people living on argumentative essay oil price, just dollars a day around the conclusions thesis, world, global poverty remains one of the greatest challenges and tragedies the international community faces. It must be a priority of American foreign policy to commit to eliminating extreme poverty and best spm, ensuring every child has food, shelter, and clean drinking water. As we strive to conclusions thesis, rebuild America’s standing in the world, this important bill will demonstrate our promise and spm, commitment to those in the developing world. Our commitment to the global economy must extend beyond trade agreements that are more about increasing profits than about conclusions thesis helping workers and small farmers everywhere.” According to a February 2008 report by Accuracy in Media editor Cliff Kincaid, the best english essay, adoption of the GPA could “result in the imposition of conclusions thesis, a global tax on the United States” and would make levels “of U.S. foreign aid spending subservient to the dictates of the United Nations.” Kincaid stated that the legislation would earmark some 0.7 percent of the U.S. Argumentative Essay. gross national product to foreign aid, which over a 13-year period would amount to roughly $845 billion “over and writing conclusions, above what the U.S. already spends.” During a July 2007 Democrat primary debate, Obama was asked: [W]ould you be willing to meet separately, without preconditions, during the first year of your administration, with the argumentative essay, leaders of Iran, Syria, Venezuela, Cuba and North Korea, in order to bridge the gap that divides our countries?
In January 2008 the writing thesis, National Journal published its rankings of all U.S. senators -- based on how they had voted on a host of foreign and domestic policy bills -- and rated Barack Obama “the most liberal Senator of i want a dissertation, 2007.” “Obama’s [foreign policy] liberal score of 92 and conservative score of 7 indicate that he was more liberal in that issue area than 92 percent of the writing conclusions, senators and more conservative than 7 percent,” the researchers explained. In the area of domestic policy voting, the study found that “Obama voted the liberal position on social, 65 of the 66 key votes on which he voted [and] garnered perfect liberal scores in both the economic and writing conclusions thesis, social categories.” President Barack Obama: On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States. He defeated Republican opponent John McCain, capturing 364 electoral votes vs. Oil Price. McCain's 162. Obama received a total of 64,538,980 votes (52.5%), vs. McCain's 56,802,609 (46.2%).  David Horowitz and Jacob Laksin, The New Leviathan (2012), Chapter 2.  Rezko had initially met Obama in writing thesis 1990, when the former was a low-income housing developer in Chicago and the latter was a Harvard Law School student. Custom Help. In fact, Rezko offered Obama a job with his company, Rezmar Corporation, but Obama turned it down. When Obama announced in 1995 that he was running for writing conclusions, an Illinois Senate seat (which would be up for grabs in 1996), two of Tony Rezko’s companies donated a total of $2,000 to Obama’s campaign.
Over the course of the entire primary season, Rezko raised between $10,000 and $15,000 of the roughly $100,000 Obama collected overall. I Want. Obama won the November 1996 election, and the district he represented included 11 of conclusions, Rezko's 30 low-income housing projects. Rezko served on the campaign committee for argumentative oil price, Obama’s failed congressional run against U.S. Rep. Bobby Rush in 2000, raising between $50,000 and $75,000 of the estimated $600,000 Obama collected for that race.
In 2001 Rezko’s Rezmar Corporation stopped making its mortgage payments on the old nursing home it had converted into apartments, and writing, the state of Illinois foreclosed on the building, which was located in Obama's Senate district. In 2003 Obama announced that he would run for an Illinois seat in the U.S. Senate which would be open the following year. I Want A Dissertation. He again named Rezko to his campaign finance committee. It is writing conclusions thesis estimated that Rezko raised some $160,000 for Obama during the research paper, Senate primary season.
In November 2004 Obama was elected U.S. Senator. A few months later, he and Rezko's wife, Rita, purchased adjacent pieces of property in Chicago's Kenwood neighborhood. Obama’s portion of the deal involved a mansion for which he paid $1.65 million -- $300,000 below the seller’s asking price. Meanwhile, Rezko's wife (who earned only writing conclusions thesis $37,000 per year and owned few assets) paid the full asking price -- $625,000 -- for a vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion. At this time, Mr. Rezko was being pursued by creditors seeking more than $10 million which Rezko owed on defaulted loans and failed business ventures. At least 12 lawsuits had been filed against Rezko and his businesses from November 2002 to January 2005, including one by the G.E. Commercial Finance Corporation, which had extended more than $5 million in essay oil price loans for Rezko’s 17 Papa Johns’ Pizza parlors in Detroit, Chicago and Milwaukee. In November 2004, G.E. obtained a court judgment against Mr. Rezko for the $3.5 million that it said was outstanding on its loans.
Obama says he does not know why the Rezkos decided to purchase the vacant lot at thesis that time. Best Essay. But the Rezkos’ involvement was crucial because the owners of the house and writing conclusions, the lot had stipulated that neither property could be sold unless a deal for the other also closed on a dissertation, the same day. Both deals indeed closed on conclusions, the same day in June 2005. At the time of the purchase, Mr. Rezko was ostensibly destitute; that is why his wife was named officially as the sole purchaser of the vacant lot.
In December 2005 Obama paid Rita Rezko $104,500 for worker job, a strip that constituted one-sixth of thesis, her newly acquired lot, so that he could increase the width of his yard by ten feet. Personal Social Worker. At the time of this deal, Tony Rezko was under federal investigation on charges that he had solicited kickbacks from companies seeking state pension business under his friend, Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich, for whom Rezko reportedly had raised as much as $500,000. For more than two years before the conclusions, property purchases, news articles also had raised questions about Mr. Rezko’s influence over state appointments and essay, contracts. Moreover, reports swirled that the FBI was investigating accusations of a shakedown scheme in which Mr. Thesis. Rezko had suggested appointments to a state hospital board. Obama rejects any suggestion that the Rezkos, by paying full price for the vacant lot, had enabled him to save $300,000 on his home’s purchase price and were perhaps seeking political favors in return. “Frankly, I don’t think he [Mr. Rezko] was doing me a favor,” Obama has said.
In October 2006, Mr. Rezko was indicted on i want, extortion charges. According to federal prosecutors, Rezko had funneled $10,000 in kickback fees to thesis, Obama's 2004 Senate campaign. Rezko remained free on statement social job, bail until January 28, 2008, when a U.S. District Judge jailed him for conclusions, having disobeyed a court order to keep the Judge apprised of his (Rezko’s) financial status. Most notably, Rezko had failed to to buy a dissertation, tell the judge about a $3.5 million loan he had received (in mid-2005) from London-based Iraqi billionaire Nadhmi Auchi -- a loan that Auchi later forgave in exchange for conclusions, shares in a prime slice of best english, Chicago real estate. Conclusions Thesis. According to the Associated Press, Rezko “gave $700,000 of the [$3.5 million] to his wife [for the admission, purchase of the vacant lot adjacent to Obama’s mansion] and used the rest to pay legal bills and writing conclusions, funnel cash to various supporters.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 116.  Such an approach to research, “pregnancy prevention” had been tried before, with disastrous results. Conclusions Thesis. In the 1960s, leftists in politics and academia demanded that sex education be added to public-school curricula nationwide, and personal social worker, that government-funded “family planning” (abortion) services be made more widely available.
By 1968, almost half of conclusions thesis, all U.S. schoolspublic and private, religious and argumentative, secularhad instituted sex education programs for their students; these programs continued to spread widely throughout the American educational system in writing thesis the 1970s. “Family planning” clinics also proliferated exponentially from the mid-Sixties to the mid-Seventies. Between the late Sixties and 1978, federal expenditures for essay, “family planning” and “population” legislation grew from $16 million annually to $279 million. Whereas in 1969 fewer than 250,000 teenagers used the services provided by abortion clinics, by 1976 their number had risen to writing thesis, 1.2 million. Between 1970 and 1980, the pregnancy rate among 15- to 19-year-olds rose by english more than 40 percent.
Among unmarried girls aged 15 to 17, birth rates rose 29 percent between 1970 and writing conclusions thesis, 1984even as the number of abortions more than doubled during the same period.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 203.  These rules to deter racial profiling, say critics, lead to “de-policing.” To avoid charges of racism if they question or arrest too many minority suspects, police find it easier to protect their careers by turning a blind eye and essay, leaving minority criminals alone.  Obama’s premise of a discriminatory justice system is entirely mistaken, as Manhattan Institute scholar Heather MacDonald points out: “Let’s start with the idea that cops over-arrest blacks and ignore white criminals. In fact, the race of criminals reported by crime victims matches arrest data. As long ago as 1978, a study of conclusions, robbery and aggravated assault in eight cities found parity between the race of assailants in frederick taylor victim identifications and in arrestsa finding replicated many times since, across a range of crimes.
No one has ever come up with a plausible argument as to writing conclusions thesis, why crime victims would be biased in their reports. “Moving up the i want to buy a dissertation, enforcement chain, the campaign against the criminal-justice system next claims that prosecutors overcharge and judges oversentence blacks. In 1997, criminologists Robert Sampson and Janet Lauritsen reviewed the massive literature on writing conclusions, charging and sentencing. To Buy A Dissertation. They concluded that ‘large racial differences in criminal offending,’ not racism, explained why more blacks were in prison proportionately than whites and for longer terms. A 1987 analysis of writing conclusions, Georgia felony convictions, for example, found that blacks frequently received disproportionately lenient punishment. A 1990 study of 11,000 California cases found that slight racial disparities in sentence length resulted from blacks’ prior records and other legally relevant variables. A 1994 Justice Department survey of felony cases from the country’s 75 largest urban areas discovered that blacks actually had a lower chance of prosecution following a felony than whites did, and that they [blacks] were less likely to be found guilty at trial. Frederick. Following conviction, blacks were more likely to receive prison sentences, howeveran outcome that reflected the gravity of their offenses as well as their criminal records.
“Another criminologisteasily as liberal as Sampsonreached the same conclusion in 1995: ‘Racial differences in conclusions thesis patterns of offending, not racial bias by police and other officials, are the principal reason that such greater proportions of best english spm, blacks than whites are arrested, prosecuted, convicted and writing conclusions thesis, imprisoned,’ Michael Tonry wrote in argumentative oil price Malign Neglect . The media’s favorite criminologist, Alfred Blumstein, found in writing 1993 that blacks were significantly underrepresented in prison for argumentative essay oil price, homicide compared with their presence in arrest.”  Many critics of the writing thesis, Court’s decision contended that it had undone the landmark Brown v. Board of Education ruling of 1954. Custom Admission Essay. But these charges were untrue. The Brown case addressed the thesis, issue of personal worker, mandatory racial segregation in writing conclusions thesis America’s public schools, an issue which had become an international embarrassment for the United States. The case centered around a black third-grader named Linda Brown who had been denied admission to i want a dissertation, an all-white school located just a few blocks from her home in Topeka, Kansas, and was forced instead to take a bus to conclusions, an all-black school in a more distant neighborhood. Because millions of other blacks nationwide faced the same dilemma, her case had far-reaching, monumental implications. Miss Brown’s father successfully sued the research paper, Topeka Board of Education on grounds that, contrary to a previous Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), segregated schools were separate but not equal and thus failed to fulfill the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection under the laws.
On May 17, 1954, the Court handed down a 9-0 decision which stated unequivocally: “Where a State has undertaken to writing conclusions thesis, provide an opportunity for an education in i want to buy its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.” In other words, Brown overturned the notion that it was permissible to use race as the basis for writing, denying students the essay, right to attend the schools they preferred. Like the 1964 Civil Rights Act that would become law ten years later, Brown was intended to remove barriers to conclusions, integration by outlawing de jure segregation, but it issued no mandate for admission, measures (like busing or racial quotas) to forcibly integrate America’s schools or workplaces.  Hoover Institution fellow and Stanford University sociologist Thomas Sowell, who has studied this matter in great depth, explains that the “‘compelling’ benefits of ‘diversity’ are “as invisible as the proverbial emperor’s new clothes”; that “[n]ot only is conclusions thesis there no hard evidence that mixing and matching black and white kids in spm school produces either educational or social benefits, there have been a number of studies of all-black schools whose educational performances equal or exceed the national average”; that “[s]ome black students -- in fact, whole schools of them -- have performed dramatically better than other black students and exceeded the norms in white schools,” and writing, that this phenomenon dates back as far as the educational research, late 19th century; that black students who have been bussed into white schools have seen no discernible rise in their standardized test scores -- “not even after decades of bussing”; and thesis, that “[n]ot only is there no hard evidence” for custom, the dogma “that there needs to conclusions, be a ‘critical mass’ of essay help, black students in writing a given school or college in order for them to perform up to standard,” but that “such hard evidence as there is points in essay help the opposite direction. Bright black kids have benefited from being in classes with other bright kids, regardless of the conclusions thesis, other kids’ color.”  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 114.  Contrary to Obama’s claim, in personal statement social job May 2008 it was announced that more than 31,000 scientists across the U.S. -- including more than 9,000 Ph.D.s in fields such as atmospheric science, climatology, Earth science, environment and writing conclusions, dozens of i want a dissertation, other specialties -- had signed a petition rejecting the writing conclusions thesis, claim that the human production of greenhouse gases is causing global warming that damages the Earth's climate. There is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of argumentative essay, carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is writing conclusions thesis causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the Earth's atmosphere and disruption of the Earth's climate, the petition stated. Moreover, there is substantial scientific evidence that increases in custom admission essay help atmospheric carbon dioxide produce many beneficial effects upon the natural plant and animal environments of the Earth.  Most legal scholars believe the president has inherent constitutional authority to conduct warrantless wiretaps to conclusions thesis, collect foreign intelligence, and no statute -- including FISA -- can reverse that.
Citing a 22-year-old precedent, the Federal Intelligence Surveillance Court of personal worker, Review ruled in 2002 that “the president did have inherent authority to conduct warrantless searches to writing conclusions thesis, obtain foreign intelligence information. We take for granted that the president does have that authority and, assuming that is so, FISA could not encroach on custom admission, the president’s constitutional power.” John Schmidt, President Clinton’s associate attorney general from 1994-97, wrote that NSA [National Security Agency] surveillance against al-Qaeda “is consistent with court decisions and with the positions of the Justice Department under prior presidents”; FISA, he explained, “did not alter the constitutional situation.” Schmidt quoted Clinton Deputy Attorney General Jamie Gorelick’s 1994 testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee: “The Department of thesis, Justice believes, and the case law supports, that the president has inherent authority to conduct warrantless physical searches for foreign intelligence purposes.”  Obama and his fellow critics of military commissions accuse such tribunals of trampling on the civil rights and liberties of personal social job, defendants who, the critics contend, should be entitled to all the rights and protections afforded by the American criminal court system -- where the standards that govern the writing conclusions thesis, admissibility of evidence are considerably stricter than the counterpart standards in military tribunals. In November 2006 Congress passed the Military Commissions Act of english essay, 2006, formally authorizing the writing, adjudication of war crimes and best, terrorism cases in writing thesis military courts. I Want To Buy A Dissertation. The House of writing, Representatives vote was 253 to paper, 168 (Republicans voted 219 to 7 in favor, Democrats 160 to 34 against); the overall Senate margin was 65 to 34 in favor. According to the Defense Department, military tribunals, where military officers serve as the judges and jurors, are designed to deal with offenses committed in the context of conclusions, warfare including pillaging; terrorism; willfully killing or attacking civilians; taking hostages; employing poison or analogous weapons; using civilians as human shields; torture; mutilation or maiming; improperly using a flag of surrender; desecrating or abusing a dead body; rape; hijacking or hazarding a vessel or aircraft; aiding the enemy; spying; providing false testimony or perjury; soliciting others to commit offenses that are triable by military jurisprudence; and intending or conspiring to commit, or to aid in the commission of, such crimes.
The issue of whether it is appropriate to try someone accused of the aforementioned transgressions in a military court depends upon how one answers a single overriding question: Is terrorism a matter of war, or is it a legal issue where redress should be pursued via the i want to buy a dissertation, criminal-justice system like robbery, vandalism, or murder.  “Our government, the Supreme Court has ruled, “by thus defining lawful belligerents entitled to writing, be treated as prisoners of war, has recognized that there is essay a class of unlawful belligerents not entitled to that privilege, including those who, though combatants, do not wear ‘fixed and distinctive emblems.’” Apart from the writing, question of whether military tribunals are a good idea philosophically, trying terrorists and war criminals in civilian rather than military courts poses a number of serious problems from a practical standpoint. For one thing, the rules defining admissible and inadmissible evidence in each venue differ dramatically. In civilian trials, neither coerced testimony, nor confessions made in the absence of a Miranda warning, nor hearsay evidence can presented to the court; in military tribunals the opposite is true, provided that the court determines such evidence to have “probative value to a reasonable person.” Attorneys Spencer J. Crona and Neal A. Richardson explain the profound significance of this: “A relaxation of the educational research abstracts, hearsay rule might become critical in a prosecution for writing conclusions thesis, terrorism where it may be impossible to oil price, produce live witnesses to an event which occurred years earlier in a foreign country. For example, the indictment in writing thesis the Pan Am Flight 103 case details the alleged purchase of to buy a dissertation, clothing, by Libyan intelligence agent Abdel Bassett, for placement in the suitcase with the bomb. The clothing was used to disguise the contents of the suitcase containing the conclusions thesis, bomb, which was placed inside a radio-cassette player. Under the research abstracts, rules of evidence applicable in U.S. District Court, the prosecution would have to produce in person the thesis, Maltese shopkeeper to identify Abdel Bassett as the man who allegedly purchased the clothing back in 1988, as opposed to producing the investigator who tracked down the shopkeeper and showed him a photograph of Abdel Bassett.
Even if we assume that the shopkeeper could be located six years or more after the fact, we recognize that it is nearly impossible to secure involuntary testimony from a witness who is a citizen of a foreign country, especially one that historically has been less than sympathetic to the United States. The reach of a federal court subpoena simply does not extend to Malta.” Another exceedingly significant weakness inherent in civilian trials for research, terrorists is the fact that in such proceedings, there exists a high likelihood that classified intelligence sources will be compromised. Writing Conclusions Thesis. If the government wishes to present certain incriminating evidence in a civilian trial, which is open to the public, it must disclose its sources as well as the techniques it used for obtaining the information from them. Worker. This obviously would place those sources in grave danger and writing conclusions thesis, would quickly lead to the non-cooperation or disappearance of many of job, them to say nothing of the writing, future potential informants who would undoubtedly choose to custom, avoid placing themselves in writing conclusions thesis similar peril. Moreover, the effectiveness of any publicly disclosed information-gathering techniques would thereafter be permanently compromised. By contrast, military tribunals permit incriminating evidence to custom admission help, be presented to the judge and jury, while being kept secret from the conclusions, public as well as from the defendant and his attorney. For those who are concerned about legal precedent, it must be understood that the use of military tribunals for essay, the adjudication of war crimes is in no way a departure from past practices. military commissions were used commonly during the Civil War. Prior to that, General George Washington employed such tribunals during the writing conclusions thesis, American Revolution in the late 18th century. I Want To Buy A Dissertation. In the era following the ratification of the writing conclusions thesis, U.S.
Constitution, military tribunals were first convened by frederick taylor essay Major General Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War of 1846-48, to adjudicate the alleged war crimes of American troops and Mexican guerrilla fighters alike. World War II also saw the use of military courts, the most famous case involving eight marines of the Third Reich (one of thesis, whom was an American citizen named Herbert Haupt ) who rode a Nazi U-boat to frederick taylor, the east coast of the writing thesis, United States, where, laden with explosives, they disembarked and set off toward various locations with the intent of bombing railroads, hydroelectric plants, factories, department stores, and educational research abstracts, defense facilities across the country. The saboteurs were wearing no military uniforms or identifying emblems when they were captured, meaning that they were, in the eyes of the law (as defined by writing conclusions the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin , quoted earlier in this article), “unlawful combatants.” Refusing to grant the perpetrators civilian jury trials, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quickly created a secret military commission to hear their cases. Frederick Essay. All eight were convicted and sentenced to death, though two turncoats later had their sentences commuted to life in prison.  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama , p. 96.  Thomas Sowell, Price Controls, Capitalism (November 16, 2005).
Dr. Sowell writes: It so happens there is a history of price controls and writing thesis, their consequences in countries around the personal social worker, world, going back literally thousands of years. But most people who advocate price controls are unaware of, and writing conclusions thesis, uninterested in, that history .  David Freddoso, The Case Against Barack Obama, pp. 205-206.
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How to Write an Effective Conclusion a Writing Centre Handout
1.) Der Essay – Versuch einer Topografie. „Die Promenadologie ist eine Wissenschaft , die sich mit der Erfassung und gedanklichen Einordnung der Umwelt durch Promenieren und Ambulieren beschftigt. Conclusions Thesis? [ . Argumentative Essay? ] Ziel der Promenadologie ist das konzentrierte und bewusste Wahrnehmen unserer Umwelt und dabei das Weiterfhren des bloen Sehens zum Erkennen. Conclusions? [ . Paper Abstracts? ] So geht es der Promenadologie darum, die Umgebung wieder in writing thesis die Kpfe der Menschen zurckzuholen. I Want A Dissertation? Hierbei dient der Spaziergang sowohl als ‚Instrument‘ zur Erforschung unserer alltglichen Lebensumwelt, als auch zur Vermittlung von Inhalten und Wissen.“ (aus: Wikipedia, Oktober 2010) Die Promenadologie hat viel zu tun mit dem Essay: Auch sein Weg ist eher das Promenieren als das geschftig-zielbewusste Streben zum Arbeitsplatz, auch er will die Umwelt wieder in conclusions die (Schler-) kpfe zurckholen, auch er will das konzentrierte und bewusste Wahrnehmen unserer Umwelt frdern und dabei vom Sehen zum Erkennen fhren. Job? Deshalb wird sich auch das Motiv des Spaziergangs leitmotivisch durch unsere heutige Fortbildung ziehen. Writing Thesis? Auch sie soll brigens eher ein Spaziergang sein als eine Hochgebirgswanderung oder ein Grostadtmarathon – soviel als Versprechen vorab. Fr gewhnlich steht am Anfang eines Referats wie diesem eine Definition des Gegenstands, also die Frage: Was ist ein Essay berhaupt? – Genau diese mchte ich Ihnen aber nicht liefern und ich kann es auch nicht, ebenso wenig wie Dutzende, ja vielleicht Hunderte Literaten und Literaturwissenschaftler seit dem 16. A Dissertation? Jahrhundert. Conclusions Thesis? Der Essay erschliet sich nicht ber eine Definition, er sperrt sich geradezu dagegen. A Dissertation? Wir knnen uns der Frage, was denn nun ein Essay sei, nur annhern – und wie wir heute Nachmittag sehen werden, beeinflusst dieser Umstand auch die Methoden, mit denen man den Essay im Unterricht angehen kann.
Ich betrachte im Folgenden den Essay zunchst einmal von seiner Genese aus, dann vergleichen wir in thesis einem zweiten Schritt verschiedene Beschreibungsversuche und prfen, ob es dabei Gemeinsamkeiten gibt, die wir – in argumentative oil price Form einer konsensuellen Schnittmenge – wirklich als konstitutiv fr die Schreibform „Essay“ ansehen knnen. Writing? Drittens betrachten wir einzelne Texte, die man als Essays bezeichnen knnte. Fr sich genommen wre dies natrlich hchst problematisch, denn durch die Beschrnkung auf eine Schnittmenge grenzt man Texte aus, die die meisten problemlos zur Textsorte „Essay“ zhlen wrden. Statement Job? Aber selbst grte Skrupel wrden das Problem nicht lsen, denn allein schon die Auswahl eines Textes in writing conclusions den Kontext des Essay muss ja von bestimmten Kriterien aus erfolgen, legt also schon im Grunde jene Mastbe an, die durch die Schnittmenge konkretisiert werden sollen. To Buy A Dissertation? Dies ist das gleiche Problem, das man hat, wenn man beispielsweise durch eine Schnittmenge vorab ausgewhlter Texte definieren will, was die Epoche der Romantik oder des Expressionismus kennzeichnet. Eine mgliche Lsung wre es, wrde man nur solche Texte auswhlen, die von ihren Verfassern (oder von Reich-Ranicki) dezidiert als „Essays“ gekennzeichnet wurden, doch auch das fhrt nicht viel weiter, die Lsungsmenge bleibt an conclusions thesis, den Rndern vllig ausgefranst und die Zuordnung bleibt willkrlich, denn auch die Verfasser von Essays legen keine verbindlichen Stilmerkmale zugrunde. Deshalb also der Dreischritt: Ein Blick auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte, daraus abgeleitet eine deskriptive Topografie der Textgattung und schlielich eine Auswahl von Texten, die auf ihre Kompatibilitt mit den bisher erarbeiteten Merkmalen hin abgeklopft werden. A Dissertation? Bis hierher nhert sich meine Vorgehensweise jener Ludwig Rohners an, der in writing thesis den 60er Jahren ein wegweisendes Buch ber den Essay geschrieben hat, das heute noch als Standardwerk angesehen werden darf. Wir brauchen fr den Unterricht letztendlich auch alle drei Sulen des Essay-Gebudes, weil wir in personal social worker job die unbequeme Situation kommen, die von den Schlerinnen und Schlern verfassten Arbeiten daraufhin prfen und bewerten zu mssen, inwieweit es sich berhaupt um Essays handelt. Writing? Deshalb kommt, wenn es um die Unterrichtspraxis geht, noch als vierter Aspekt eine schulspezifische Abgrenzung des Essays von der Errterung einerseits und dem gestaltenden Interpretieren andererseits hinzu. Michel de Montaigne gilt als Ahnherr des Essay.
Bei ihm wird der Name der Textgattung zum Programm, denn in best english essay seinen schon 1580 verffentlichten „Essais“ sieht er in conclusions thesis ihr eine Methode zur Erkenntnisgewinnung. Frederick Taylor? Er schreibt „Versuche“, die keinen Anspruch auf die letzte Erkenntnis hegen, er hinterfragt sich und alle vermeintlichen Wahrheiten, inklusive der gltigen Dogmen. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Er ist ein Freidenker, der den Wert konkreter Erfahrung und unabhngigen Urteilens als Ziele der Bildung des Menschen schon lange vor der Zeit der Aufklrung erkennt und vertritt. Personal Statement Worker? Die Form seiner Texte passt zu ihrem Gehalt: Er baut sie dialogisch oder zumindest an conclusions thesis, einen imaginierten Adressaten gerichtet auf; er kennzeichnet sie als Diskurs, der um weitere, tiefere Erkenntnis bemht ist: Ich trage keine Glaubensstze, sondern unverbindliche Meinungen vor, ber die man nachdenken soll; ich trage vor, was ich mir mit meinem Verstand so ausdenke, nicht, was ich nach Gottes Weisung zu glauben habe; wie ich es sage, ist ganz unkirchlich, nicht theologisch, aber immer sehr fromm. Essay? Wie Kinder ihre „Versuche“ hinzeigen: sie wollen daran lernen, nicht andere damit belehren. aus: Michel de Montaigne, Die Essais. Writing Thesis? Dieterich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Leipzig, 1953, S. Custom Essay Help? 132 f. Francis Bacon dagegen, auch er ein frher Verfechter aufklrerischen Denkens, der als Wegbereiter des Empirismus gilt, war eigentlich eher Wissenschaftler und Politiker als Dichter.
Der Ausspruch „ wisdom is writing thesis power“ (Wissen ist Macht) wird ihm zugeschrieben. Frederick Taylor? Es ging ihm zuallererst um die praktische Nutzanwendung naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse. Writing Thesis? Er sah die Naturbeherrschung als Ziel allen Fortschritts. Educational Paper? Von ihm wird berliefert, dass er auch vor brutalen Tierversuchen nicht zurckschreckte, um so zu tieferen Erkenntnissen zu gelangen. Writing Conclusions? Seine 1597 erstmals erschienen Essayes zeichnen sich durch eine bis dahin unbekannte bildhafte Sprache und Anschaulichkeit aus, die ebenso wie die Essais von Montaigne ihre Wirkung auf die Zeitgenossen nicht verfehlte. Dreierlei entnehmen wir hier schon in educational research Bezug auf den Essay: eine spezifische Sprachform, die Rezipientenbezogenheit und die Aktualitt der Themen. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Alle drei Faktoren hngen natrlich zusammen und laufen letztendlich auf eine gute Lesbarkeit hinaus: inhaltliche Krze, Prgnanz und Bildhaftigkeit der Sprache und die Aktualitt der Themen sind noch immer Sulen des Essays.
Wie aber steht es nun mit dem Essay in i want a dissertation Deutschland? Hufig ist zu lesen, dass dieser erst gegen Mitte des 19. Writing Conclusions? Jahrhunderts in frederick taylor essay der deutschen Literatur Einzug halte. Thesis? Dies ist so sicher nicht richtig. Argumentative Essay? Man denke nur an conclusions, die zahlreichen Texte im 18.
Jahrhundert, die sich als „Versuch“ ausgeben – nicht zuletzt Schillers Dissertation („Versuch ber den Zusammenhang der thierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen“), oder an essay spm, bekannte Texte des frhen 19. Writing Thesis? Jahrhunderts, wie zum Beispiel Kleists „ber die allmhliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden“ (1811). Taylor? Novalis und Friedrich Schlegel sprechen von Essays, was insofern nur logisch ist, als die essayistische Form sich gut in thesis den fragmentarischen Grundcharakter romantischer Prosa fgt. Statt einer Theorie: der Gang ber die Blumenwiese. „Essay [..]: krzere Prosa-Abhandlung ber einen knstlerischen oder wissenschaftlichen Gegenstand, eine aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens u. Worker Job? . Writing Conclusions? von allgemeinem, fachspezifischem Interesse in essay leicht zugnglicher, doch knstlerisch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoller, geistreicher Form und anregend lockerem, doch geschliffenem, teils aphoristischem, ironischem, pointiertem und paradoxem Stil von eleganter Leichtigkeit mit einprgsamen, originellen Formulierungen.“ aus: Gero von Wilpert, Artikel „Essay“, in: ders.: Sachwrterbuch der Literatur, Stuttgart 2001, 240-242.
Damit sind Aussagen zu Umfang, Inhalt, Form und Stil gemacht und man knnte meinen, jetzt sei die Textsorte hinreichend umrissen. Writing Thesis? Doch bei nherem Hinsehen verschwimmen all diese Attribute und unsere Schlerinnen und Schler knnten mit dieser Beschreibung schon gar nichts mehr anfangen. Abstracts? Vergleichen wir damit die Beschreibung des Essays durch Ludwig Rohner, der bereits in conclusions den 60er Jahren einige Standardwerke zum Essay verfasst hat: „Was ist der Essay? Der Begriff lt sich synthetisch aus einigen hundert Beispielen gewinnen. Best English? Versuchsweise: der deutsche Essay, eine eigenstndige literarische Gattung, ist ein krzeres, geschlossenes, locker komponiertes Stck betrachtsamer Prosa, das in thesis sthetisch anspruchsvoller Form einen einzigen, inkommensurablen Gegenstand kritisch deutend umspielt, dabei am liebsten reihend, verknpfend, anschauungsbildend verfhrt, den fiktiven Partner im geistigen Gesprch virtuos unterhlt und dessen Bildung, kombinatorisches Denken, Phantasie erlebnishaft einsetzt. aus: Deutsche Essays, Prosa aus zwei Jahrhunderten, hrsg. English? von Ludwig Rohner, dtv Textbibliothek 6018, Band 1, 1972, S. Thesis? 20 ff. Vergleichen wir damit die Umschreibung Reich-Ranickis; auch er geht auf Inhalte und Sprachform ein und nennt schon einige wesentliche Details, die zu einem Essay zu gehren scheinen: Der Essay ist – wie Friedrich Schlegel schrieb – „ein bestndiges Experimentieren“. Frederick? Er kritisiert, wenn nicht immer, so doch oft, wenn nicht offen, so doch getarnt die etablierten Anschauungen, die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen. Thesis? Und whrend die Abhandlung auf den sthetischen Anspruch keinen sonderlichen Wert legt, ist dem Essay an best essay spm, einer knstlerischen Form gelegen, an thesis, einem persnlichen und womglich temperamentvollen Stil, an research paper abstracts, einprgsamen Formulierungen.
Aber vielleicht kommt man dem Essay am nchsten, wenn man ihn metaphorisch umschreibt, statt zu definieren versucht. Thesis? Dies hat Michael Hamburger geleistet. Educational Research Abstracts? Er schreibt in writing conclusions thesis seinem Essay ber den Essay (1965) Folgendes: Schon das stimmt nicht ganz: ein Essay darf eigentlich nichts behandeln, nichts bestimmen oder definieren. Research Paper Abstracts? Ein Essay ist ein Spaziergang, ein Lustwandeln, keine Handelsreise. Writing Conclusions? Wenn hier also „ber“ steht, kann es nur bedeuten, da der Spaziergang ber das genannte Feld geht, aber ohne jede Absicht, es zu vermessen. A Dissertation? Dieses Feld wird nicht umgepflgt, auch nicht bebaut. Es soll Wiese bleiben, wild. Thesis? Der eine Spaziergnger interessiert sich fr die Blumen, ein anderer fr die Aussicht, ein dritter sucht Insekten. Admission? Die Jagd nach Schmetterlingen ist erlaubt.
Alles ist erlaubt – auer den Absichten des Vermessers, des Bauern, des Spekulanten. In: Akzente 1965, S. Writing Thesis? 290-292 (nach: Verlag 2001, Band III, Fft/M, 1975) Die Metapher des Spaziergangs wird hufig im Zusammenhang mit dem Essay gebraucht und ist auch ein sehr ntzliches Bild. Educational Paper Abstracts? Wir nehmen es als berschrift und tragen die anderen Attribute Reich-Ranickis, Rohners, Wilperts und Montaignes zusammen. Daraus ergibt sich dann Folgendes: knstlerisch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoll. locker komponiertes Stck Prosa. knstlerischer oder wissenschaftlicher Gegenstand. aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens. umspielt Gegenstand kritisch deutend. kritisiert die etablierten Anschauungen und die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen.
geschliffen, teils aphoristisch, ironisch, pointiert und paradox. originelle, einprgsame Formulierungen. persnlich und womglich temperamentvoll. selbst lernen, nicht andere belehren. regt zum Nachdenken an. Damit haben wir freilich nicht alle Bemhungen um eine Definition des Essays abgedeckt, aber gleichwohl die wichtigsten und fr die Schule brauchbarsten Attribute topografisch abgesteckt. Conclusions Thesis? Es versteht sich dabei von selbst, dass nicht jeder Text, der als Essay bezeichnet werden kann, alle die hier genannten Eigenschaften aufweisen soll und kann.
Aber es wird ein wesentlicher Aspekt deutlich, der m. Frederick Taylor? E. Conclusions? sehr dafr spricht, den Essay ab 2014 als Aufgabenform im Abitur zu implementieren: Gedankenspaziergnge, das spielerische Experimentieren mit Ideen und Assoziationen, das Durchwandern imaginrer Landschaften mit Aus- und Umblicken ist ohne eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung desjenigen, der Essays schreibt, nicht mglich. J. Statement Worker Job? S. Writing? Ulmer in statement social job einem unverffentlichten Script, Bad Wildbad, 2010. Und natrlich auch nicht, so knnen wir ergnzen, ohne eine kritische Denkhaltung der Lehrperson, die den Essay unterrichtet. Conclusions? Und von daher stellt der Essay – politisch gesprochen – ein willkommenes Bollwerk in essay den Abiturprfungen der kommenden Jahre dar, wenn es darum geht, sich einer Prfungs-Unkultur zu erwehren, die glaubt, im Stile der DVAs knftig auch im Abitur verfahren zu knnen. Abgrenzung zur Errterung und dem gestaltenden Interpretieren. Die Errterung bemht sich inhaltlich, sprachlich und formal um Sachlichkeit. Writing? Ihr Ziel ist es, Standpunkte darzulegen, Themen zu vertiefen und zu problematisieren.
Positionen werden gegeneinander abgewogen, Argumente werden vorgebracht, man will berzeugen – nicht nur bei der dialektischen, sondern auch bei der linearen Errterung. Best? Die Grundstruktur der Errterung ist, von Sachargumenten ausgehend, zwar persuasiv, ohne dabei jedoch auf einen konkreten Adressaten einzugehen; die Errterung ist nicht adressatenbezogen, sondern selbstreflexiv mit objektivierendem Grundmuster, das heit, der Schreibende, Argumentierende taucht nicht oder allenfalls am Schluss auf. Writing Thesis? Die dialektische Errterung ist mit einem Rollenspiel vergleichbar oder mit einem Gerichtsverfahren: Einer leitet in i want a dissertation die Thematik ein und fhrt das Verfahren, indem er den gegnerischen Parteien jeweils das Wort erteilt, sprich: die bergnge formuliert. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Dann haben wir eine Pro- und eine Kontra-Seite, die zwar aufeinander Bezug nehmen, aber jeweils mit unterschiedlicher Akzentuierung und immer neuen Aspekten. Admission Essay Help? Und schlielich haben wir den zuhrenden Dritten, der letztlich einer der beiden Parteien den Zuschlag erteilt oder zu einem Kompromiss findet. Conclusions Thesis? Dieser kann mit dem einfhrenden Gesprchsleiter identisch sein, es kann sich aber (eben zum Beispiel in best english essay einem Rollenspiel) auch um die Zuhrerschaft oder die Presse u. Conclusions? . I Want To Buy? handeln. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Bei der linearen Errterung und / oder der Texterrterung, die ja linear oder dialektisch sein kann, liegt ebenfalls eine Art Kommunikationssituation vor, nmlich mit dem in oil price Frage stehenden Thema, mit dem Verfasser des zugrunde liegenden Textes etc., die aber gleichwohl immer sachlich-neutral bleibt. Dies alles gilt selbstverstndlich nicht fr die so genannte gestaltende Errterung, eine Aufsatz-Zusatzform der letzten Jahre, die von Beginn an writing conclusions thesis, eine Schimre war, ein fachdidaktischer und fachwissenschaftlicher Irrtum, der nicht aus Germanistenkpfen kam, sondern auf ministeriale Vorgaben zurckzufhren ist, die vllig unbeleckt von jeglicher Kenntnis ber das Wesen einer Errterung waren. Essay? Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an writing thesis, einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen. A Dissertation? Davon also soll hier nicht die Rede sein.
Die typische Errterung ist dagegen per conclusions se multiperspektivisch, denn auch die lineare Errterung bemht sich darum, mglichst viele Facetten eines Themas zu beleuchten und dieses mglichst tief zu durchdringen – und zwar immer auf sachliche, unpersnliche Weise. Ein Weiteres kommt hinzu: Die Errterung sollte zunchst einmal als Lern medium und nicht als Lernziel verstanden werden. Abstracts? Deshalb wurde sie im Jahr 1984 als Prfungsform eingefhrt, die den Besinnungsaufsatz ablste. Writing Thesis? Das Schreiben des Aufsatzes sollte nicht Selbstzweck sein, sondern es geht, auf eine Formel gebracht, letzten Endes zunchst um die Fhigkeit des Errterns , also um gedankliche Strukturen, und erst in research abstracts zweiter Linie um die Fertigkeit, einen Errterungsaufsatz „schulmig zu schreiben. Writing Conclusions Thesis? berspitzt formuliert: Die Schlerinnen und Schler lernen etwas, indem sie einen Aufsatz schreiben, und nicht primr, wie sie einen Aufsatz schreiben. Educational Paper Abstracts? Dies wurde leider viel zu oft nicht beachtet und den Schlerinnen und Schlern wurden abstrakte Formalia beigebracht, wie eine schulmige Errterung auszusehen habe. Writing Thesis? Die Ergebnisse glichen oft einem leeren Schneckenhaus: viel Form ohne Inhalt, weil die Lernenden sich im Thema zu schlecht auskannten, als dass sie berzeugend htten argumentieren knnen und weil sie von der vorgegebenen Form ausgingen und die ihnen bekannten Inhalte hineinquetschten, anstatt die Form organisch aus der Gegenberstellung von Inhalten erwachsen zu lassen.
Demgegenber wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Aussatzform eingesetzt, um der Tatsache Rechnung zu tragen, dass jeder Leser auf seine Art immer gleichzeitig auch Produzent des Textes ist, liest er doch gewissermaen sich in educational research den Text hinein, er deutet diesen nach seinen Mglichkeiten und Fhigkeiten und beurteilt ihn auf dem Hintergrund seines eigenen Weltwissens, seiner Erfahrung und seiner Kenntnisse. Writing Thesis? Gleichzeitig wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Ausgleich fr eine bis dato von analytischen Aufgaben dominierten Abiturstruktur verstanden. Spm? Sie war und ist gedacht als Chance fr jene Schlerinnen und Schler, die zwar Sensibilitt fr Texte beweisen, diese aber nicht in thesis Form eines analytischen Zugriffs und einer zusammenhngenden Interpretation zum Ausdruck bringen knnen, die gleichwohl aber in to buy der Gestaltung eines textaffinen Aufsatzes beweisen, dass sie auch tiefer gelegene Strukturen eines Textes erfasst haben. Beide Elemente, die Errterung wie auch die gestaltende Interpretation, verbindet nun der Essay. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Ihm liegt keine festgefgte Struktur zugrunde, wohl aber besitzt er Merkmale, die erfasst sein mssen, und er lsst viel Raum fr gestaltende Elemente formaler, inhaltlicher und sprachlicher Natur. Frederick Taylor? Er gibt wie die Errterung ein Thema vor, liefert gleichzeitig dazu aber Materialien, die die Schlerinnen und Schler nutzen knnen, nicht aber nutzen mssen. Thesis? Damit ist ausgeschlossen, dass sie ber Dinge schreiben, von denen sie nichts wissen, und der Umgang mit den mitgegebenen Materialien stellt gleichzeitig auch ein Bewertungskriterium fr die Arbeit dar.
Qualittskriterien und Korrekturhilfen. Eigentlich vertrgt sich der Essay nicht mit einer Benotungssituation, aber dies gilt in job gewisser Weise fr alle Formen nicht-analytischen Schreibens und in writing thesis letzter Konsequenz auch fr die Errterung, wenn man sie wirklich als Lernmedium und nicht den Errterungsaufsatz als Lernziel versteht. Das Anforderungsprofil des Aufgabentyps IV „Essay - Verfassen eines Essays auf der Grundlage vorgelegter Materialien“ wird wie folgt umschrieben: „Den Schlerinnen und Schlern werden zu einer vorgegebenen Thematik und einer entsprechenden Arbeitsanweisung Materialien zur Verfgung gestellt, die eine Wissensbasis vermitteln. Best Essay Spm? Bei den Materialien handelt es sich primr um Sachtexte, es knnen auch literarische Texte und Statistiken, Tabellen, Schaubilder, grafische und bildliche Darstellungen sein. Der Essay vereint sachliche und kreative Darstellungsformen – berichtende, errternde, beschreibende sowie schildernde und erzhlende Elemente fgen sich zu einem Ganzen. Writing Conclusions? Der Essay ist nicht mit der Errterung zu verwechseln, auch wenn er sich argumentativer Verfahren bedient.
Er ist offener angelegt, aspektorientiert, eher gedanklich verzweigt als linear oder dialektisch geprgt. Sprachlich erfordert der Essay differenzierte Mittel wie etwa Pointen, Metaphern, Klimax, Wortspiele und Ironie.“ aus: Ministerbrief zur Weiterentwicklung der schriftlichen Abiturprfung im Fach Deutsch an educational, allgemein bildenden und beruflichen Gymnasien, vom 16.4.2009. Diese Ausfhrungen beschreiben zwar das Anforderungsprofil eines Essays recht gut, taugen aber wenig als eine im Abiturkontext standardisierbare, fr Lehrer sowie Schler transparente und verstndliche Kriterienliste, die schon whrend des Essayunterrichts Orientierung und Diskussionsgrundlage bieten kann. Conclusions? Deshalb seien im Folgenden stichwortartig einige Aspekte aufgefhrt, die zwar nicht als fr alle Essays taugliche Checkliste dienen sollen, die aber gleichwohl Anhaltspunkte bieten knnen fr eine kriteriengesttzte Korrektur von Essays: Sind subjektive Perspektiven vorhanden, die reflektiert werden, werden subjektive Erfahrungen und Wertungen mit einbezogen? Wie ist die gedankliche Durchdringung des Themas? Werden eigenstndige Anstze erkennbar? Ist ein fr den Leser nachvollziehbarer Aufbau vorhanden? Ist eine geordnete Vielfalt zu erkennen? Wird ein Problem / ein Thema klar umrissen? Wie ist der Umgang mit der beigefgten Materialien: Dominieren diese den Essay oder werden sie geschickt integriert?
Bleibt der Aufsatz ergebnisoffen und prozesshaft? Finden sich originelle Einflle und / oder Formulierungen? Entspricht der Aufsatz sprachlich den Konventionen eines Essays? Der Essay am berufsbildenden Gymnasium. Seit dem Abitur 2005 ist der Essay im berufsbildenden Gymnasium Gegenstand der schriftlichen Prfung, nachdem in statement worker Zuge der Lehrplanrevision im Jahr 2003 die Forderung nach einem kreativen Element in writing conclusions der Abiturprfung laut wurde. I Want To Buy A Dissertation? Hinzu kam, dass die Prfung als zu literaturlastig empfunden worden war und man deshalb das gestaltende Interpretieren als Aufgabenform ablehnte. Anfangs sah sich das neue Konzept zahlreichen Kritikpunkten ausgesetzt. Conclusions Thesis? Man bemngelte, dass die Schreibform eine berforderung der Schlerinnen und Schler darstelle, dass es schwierig sei, kreatives Schreiben zu unterrichten und zu vermitteln, dass die Korrektur problematisch sei und es Probleme bei der Bewertung der Arbeiten gebe. Mittlerweile stellt sich an best english spm, den beruflichen Gymnasien die Situation so dar, dass ca. Conclusions? 20 % der Schlerinnen und Schler im Abitur den Essay whlen und dass ca. Statement? ein Drittel dieser Arbeiten beim Drittkorrektor landet.
Diese Zahlen sind unspektakulr, aber Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, wo die Gefahrenquellen bzw. Writing Thesis? Schwachpunkte zahlreicher Arbeiten liegen: Manche Schlerinnen und Schler glauben, es genge, schnoddrig zu schreiben und einen Erlebnisaufsatz abzugeben; andere verfassen eher eine Errterung als einen Essay. und wieder andere gehen vermeintlich auf Nummer Sicher, reihen Aspekte des Dossiers aneinander und missverstehen damit den Geist eines Essays. Zum Teil sind die Probleme durch den Unterricht hausgemacht. I Want? So hat sich etwa gezeigt, dass es den Kolleginnen und Kollegen mitunter schwerfllt, den Essay zwischen Erlebnisaufsatz und Errterung zu positionieren und dass sie Skrupel haben, Schlerarbeiten in conclusions der schulischen Vorbereitungsphase schlecht zu bewerten, weil sie frchten, damit in personal statement social worker job Erklrungsnot zu geraten – mit der Folge, dass gute Durchschnitte beim Essay den Schlerinnen und Schlern suggerieren, hier sei Beliebigkeit mglich und man erhalte dennoch eine ordentliche Punktzahl. Conclusions Thesis? Hinzu kommt, dass die Kolleginnen und Kollegen beklagen, im Unterricht keinen rechten Zugang zum Essay zu bekommen, weil es keine handfesten Regeln und Vorgaben gibt und keinen didaktisch-methodischen Handlauf, an essay, dem man sich in thesis der Unterrichtspraxis festhalten knne.
Dies alles mag so sein und ist mglicherweise auf das allgemein bildende Gymnasium zu bertragen; und ich bin weit davon entfernt zu glauben, dass mein Referat hier Abhilfe schaffen und den Stein der Weisen vermitteln knne, aber vielleicht nutzen ein paar Erfahrungen aus der Unterrichtspraxis in english essay einer Erprobungsphase. Der Essay am allgemein bildenden Gymnasium. Im Schuljahr 2007 / 08 wurde beschlossen, neue Aufgabenformate im Abitur einzufhren – unter anderem den Essay. Writing Conclusions? Hintergrund war zum einen die schon lnger anhaltende Tendenz der Angleichung des allgemein bildenden an custom, die beruflichen Gymnasien, zum andern standen Probleme bei der Themenfindung zur gestaltenden Interpretation Pate sowie die fehlende Akzeptanz der literarischen Errterung ( 2%). Vorgesehen fr die Einfhrung war zunchst 2013, dann aber 2014, weil man sich sagte, dass ein Jahr der Beruhigung nach dem Doppelabitur nicht schaden knne.
Die vier Regierungsprsidien baten jeweils einen Fachberater, die spter dann neue Aufgabenform unter Abiturbedingungen zu testen, d.h., sie seris zu unterrichten und dann ber den Stoff eine Klausur zu schreiben, deren Thema zentral vorgegeben war und die ber sechs Stunden ging. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Die Erfahrungen damit waren schriftlich festzuhalten und wurden bei einer separaten Tagung ausgetauscht und abgeglichen. Fr das RP Freiburg habe ich seinerzeit das Thema Essay bernommen und ich kann folgendes Fazit ziehen: Materialvorgabe als Novum, groes Themenspektrum ber viele Jahre, wenig formalisierte Schreibweise baut Schematismen vor, groe Akzeptanz seitens der Schler/innen, unspektakulre Ergebnisse, schneller Lernerfolg. vermeintliche Beliebigkeit des Essays verleitet zur Flchtigkeit,
Schlerinnen und Schler verlieren Details aus den Augen, wenig Reflexion ber pointierte Schreibweise und stilistische Fragen allgemein, z.T. I Want To Buy A Dissertation? Umgangssprache als sprachliche Leichtigkeit missverstanden, Kleben an conclusions, Materialien, „Abhaken“; mangelhaftes Hinterfragen der Materialien, additive Reihung von Aspekten, Anschreiben gegen sich selbst (aber: auch bei Errterung), Ideenlosigkeit fhrt zu frhzeitiger Abgabe der Arbeit bzw. Social Worker Job? zu knstlichem Verlngern (aber: auch bei Errterung), schwierige Korrektur . Als Konsequenz: Vorarbeiten und Voraussetzungen - Forderungen an conclusions, den Unterricht. Essay sptestens ab Kl.
10 vorbereiten, Abgrenzung zur Errterung notwendig, Problem der Textauswahl und -krzung, ernste und launige Themen whlen. Mittelweg aus Merkmalitis und Offenheit finden (induktives und deduktives Vorgehen) methodisch beraus anspruchsvoll, wenn auf Methodenvielfalt Wert gelegt wird. Essay verlangt eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung und gestalterische Selbststndigkeit; Unterrichtsstil ist darauf hin auszurichten. 3.) Mglichkeiten der unterrichtlichen Realisation. Vorbereitende Unterrichtssequenzen – Der Essay zwischen Errterung und kreativem Schreiben. Im Anfang war die Argumentation. A Dissertation? In Abkehr vom bis dahin gepflegten „Besinnungsaufsatz“ (Thema z.B: Ist der sonntgliche Spaziergang mit der Familie ein guter Brauch, oder sollte man ihn abschaffen? – Sprachbuch Rahn-Pfleiderer, Klasse 11!) begann seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre ein Curriculum argumentierender und persuasiv ausgelegter Schreib- und Textformen.
Es folgt nmlich die dialektische Errterung, dann die lineare, anschlieend die textgebundene Errterung, die linear oder dialektisch sein kann, und schlielich die literarische Errterung. Writing Thesis? Die gestaltende „Errterung“ lassen wir beiseite, denn das ist keine. I Want? Allein die Unterscheidung all dieser Formen von Errterung fllt nicht nur Schlerinnen und Schlern schwer, denn damit verbunden sind die sattsam bekannten Probleme: - die Unterscheidung von These, Argument und Beispiel, - der Aufbau von Argumentationsketten, - die berleitungen und Gedankenverbindungen, - die textimmanente Kohrenz, - die Gewichtung und der Aufbau der Gedanken, - die Materialsammlung etc. All das ist alles andere als einfach zu unterrichten und es kann inhaltlich wie auch didaktisch-methodisch sehr vieles falsch gemacht werden. Writing Thesis? Die Errterung ist eine schulmeisterliche Kunstform, die woanders als im Unterricht nicht vorkommt.
Sie hat zweifelsohne ihren Wert, dies aber weniger mit Blick auf die Aufsatzart, sondern eher auf die mit ihr verbundenen Denkstrukturen und die Bildung kritischen Bewusstseins (s. Social Job? Ref. Writing Conclusions Thesis? am Vormittag). Und nun kommt auch noch der Essay dazu. Argumentative Essay? Aus alledem wird schon deutlich, dass der Essay nicht beleuchtet werden kann durch eine Aufnahme in writing dieses Errterungs-Curriculum, denn wir wrden eine Unbekannte mit der andern zu erklren versuchen. Das wiederum bedeutet aber, dass, wenn wir schon frhzeitig mit der Einfhrung in spm den Essay beginnen wollen (was unbedingt notwendig ist!), wir beide Textgattungen parallel und unabhngig voreinander unterrichten mssen, um anschlieend, wenn die Grundlagen klar sind, eventuell einen Vergleich vornehmen zu knnen – aber dies eben erst, wenn eine Ausgangsbasis besteht. Conclusions Thesis? (Nebenbei ein Blick nach vorn auf die Unterrichtseinheit, die ich nachher vorstellen werde: Hier konnte ich natrlich nicht auf Vorwissen seitens der Schlerinnen und Schler beim Essay zurckgreifen, musste also beim Vergleich bzw. Research? der Abgrenzung anders vorgehen.) Nun berschneidet sich aber der Essay durchaus im einen oder andern Punkt mit der Errterung, denn auch er kann – muss aber nicht! – argumentativ ausgerichtet sein. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Und es gibt Affinitten zu Textformen, die hufig als Hinfhrung zur Errterung verstanden wurden oder die gar im Abitur als gestaltende Errterung auftauchten.
Ich nehme Bezug auf meine Aussage vom Vormittag, wo ich sagte: „Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an abstracts, einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.“ Der Leserbrief – hufig schon in conclusions Klasse 9 strapaziert – eignet sich bei nherem Hinschauen aber gerade nicht als Vorbung fr die Errterung, selbst wenn er sich in educational research noch so vielen Lehrbchern findet, denn er ist eine subjektive Schreibform, in writing thesis der sich der Verfasser nicht unbedingt um Sachlichkeit und multiperspektivisches Denken bemht. Educational Research Paper? Aber als Hinfhrung zum Essay macht er Sinn, ist sogar geradezu ideal. Writing Conclusions? Er bringt eine persnliche, subjektive Komponente ins Spiel, richtet sich an custom essay, einen genannten oder ungenannten Adressaten (den Zeitungsleser), muss sich auf Grund seiner ffentlichkeit (etwa im Unterschied zum Brief) um einen guten Stil und berzeugungskraft bemhen, die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen rezipientenbezogen denken und die Wirkung ihres Texts auf andere in thesis Betracht ziehen und werden schlielich ganz nebenbei auch zum Lesen der Tageszeitung veranlasst. Essay? Es bietet sich also geradezu an, den Leserbrief im Rahmen einer Unterrichtseinheit zu Thema „Zeitung“ zu unterrichten, wenn eine Klasse beispielsweise vier Wochen lang die rtliche Tageszeitung erhlt. Conclusions Thesis? Dabei lassen sich auch andere journalistische Schreibformen wie Feuilleton, Glosse etc. Personal Social Worker? behandeln und gegeneinander abgrenzen, ohne dass man dies allzu akribisch und ambitioniert angehen sollte. Writing Thesis? Ein positiver Nebeneffekt: Die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen nicht, wie bisweilen bei der Errterung, tapfer gegen sich selbst anschreiben (zum Beispiel Lesen vs Neue Medien), worunter hufig die Authentizitt leidet; im Gegenteil: man kann die Lernenden zum Nonkonformismus ermuntern, denn jetzt drfen sie ihre Meinung sagen . Ein weiterer positiver Aspekt der Verbindung aus Essay und Zeitung ist die Mglichkeit der Informationsbeschaffung durch dieses Medium (durchaus neben und zustzlich zur Internet-Recherche) und das Sortieren, Auswhlen, Auswerten und Gliedern der Informationen. Oil Price? Dies alles kann bereits in writing conclusions thesis Klasse 9 stattfinden (evtl. Abstracts? im zweiten Halbjahr). In Klasse 10 knnte dann die Rede hinzukommen, in writing thesis der gezielte rhetorische Elemente verwendet werden, um eine bestimmte Wirkung zu erzeugen und die Zuhrerschaft zu berzeugen. Essay? Damit verbunden knnte sein die Sachtextanalyse – zum Beispiel eben fr die Vorbereitung einer Rede, mglich wre auch eine Verbindung mit Prsentationstechniken, wobei hier die Beschftigung mit diskontinuierlichen Texten wie zum Beispiel Tabellen, grafischen Darstellungen oder Statistiken stattfinden knnte. Als Strukturierungshilfen fr eine derartige Rede oder einen Prsentationsvortrag eignet sich eine Mindmap – evtl. Conclusions? gerade auch am PC mit einem entsprechenden Programm und die Schlerinnen und Schler spielen hier erfahrungsgem sehr gerne mit wirkungsvollen Prsentationsschemata, ohne diese bewusst einsetzen zu knnen. Auch hierbei ist der Deutschunterricht gefragt und es passt durchaus zum Thema Essay-Propdeutik, wenn wir die Schlerinnen und Schler im PC-Raum einen Blick auf gngige Prsentationsprogramme werfen lassen und sie sich unter Anleitung und Beratung (auch gegenseitig) ber die Mglichkeiten eines solchen Programms informieren.
Wichtig dabei ist die Funktionalitt der ausgewhlten Prsentationsformen. Essay? Nicht auf Eindruckschinderei kommt es an, sondern darauf, die eigenen Gedanken in thesis anspruchsvoller Form in frederick eingngige grafische Darstellungen umzusetzen. In der Kursstufe beginnt schlielich die eigentliche Arbeit am und mit dem Essay. Conclusions Thesis? Neu ist hierbei zunchst einmal das Dossier . Essay? Dieses kann Hilfe sein, birgt aber auch Fallstricke. Writing Thesis? Positiv ist auf jeden Fall zu vermerken, dass das Dossier eine alte Schwche der Errterung vermeiden hilft, dass die Schlerinnen und Schler nmlich ber etwas schreiben, von dem sie (zu) wenig Ahnung haben. Research Paper Abstracts? Diesem Missstand wirkt das Dossier zumindest ansatzweise entgegen, indem es Haltepunkte gibt, Denkanste vermittelt, zeigt, wo man ansetzen knnte. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Genau dies ist auch der tiefere Sinn dieser Textbeigaben, nicht etwa die bernahme von Stzen oder gar ganzer Textteile in custom admission den Essay. Conclusions Thesis? Dossiertexte haben Impulscharakter. Taylor? Nichtsdestoweniger lauern hier die Gefahren. Writing Thesis? Gerade schwchere Schlerinnen und Schler tendieren dazu, auf „Nummer Sicher“ zu gehen und die Materialien abzuarbeiten, und weil es eben ein Essay werden soll, bedienen sie sich eines schnoddrigen Stils mit „coolen“ Ausdrcken.
Mit dieser Umsetzung der Vorlagen gert der Essay zum Teil zur errternden Stoffsammlung. Taylor? Dem kann man entgegenwirken, indem man die Schlerinnen und Schler abstracts schreiben lsst und sie zwingt, einzelne Aspekte aus dem Materialienpool hchstens in writing Form weniger Zitate zu verwenden. Educational Research? Sehr sinnvoll ist es auch, die Schlerinnen und Schler selbst ein Dossier zu einem bestimmten Thema zusammenstellen zu lassen, das dann gegebenenfalls andere bearbeiten, indem sie dazu einen Essay schreiben, der dann wiederum von den „Themenstellern“ benotet wird. Um zu verhindern, dass die Lernenden sich einzig und allein auf die Materialien des Dossiers verlassen, kann man dieses im Unterricht und gegebenenfalls in conclusions der Klausur zeitverzgert ausgeben und die Schlerinnen und Schler zunchst eine eigene Ideensammlung anfertigen lassen. Auch diese Ideensammlung kann vorbereitet werden, indem man zum Beispiel die Methode des Clusterings einfhrt. Oil Price? Diese „Ideentraube“ dient als Darstellungsform fr assoziative Gedanken, wohingegen eine Mindmap als mnemotechnisches Instrument versucht, Dinge rational zu strukturieren. Writing Conclusions Thesis? Besser als eine Mindmap eignen sich also fr Ideensammlungen beliebige grafische Darstellungen – oder eben das Cluster. Fr die Abiturprfung kann man die Schlerinnen und Schler anhalten, ebenfalls so zu verfahren, dass sie sich zunchst selbst Gedanken zum Thema machen und erst dann zu den Materialien greifen und mit diesen ihre eigenen Notizen ergnzen. Admission Help? Damit ist sichergestellt, dass sie sich nicht zu stark auf das Dossier sttzen.
Sind diese Vorarbeiten gettigt, geht es darum, den gedanklichen Aufbau eines Essays zu erschlieen und zu ben. Writing? Altbekannte Methoden des „verzgerten Lesens“, spter in essay leicht erweiterter Form eher bekannt als „handlungs- und produktionsorientierter Unterricht“ (vgl. Thesis? Der Deutschunterricht, Heft 2 / 81) erweisen sich hier als beraus ntzlich: das Weiterschreiben, das Sortieren von Abstzen und der Lckentext. Argumentative Oil Price? Wir betrachten das am Beispiel der Materialien zum Thema „Literatur in conclusions thesis der Schule“ (Mat. Frederick Essay? teil, S. Conclusions Thesis? 8-10). I Want To Buy A Dissertation? Hier haben wir lauter Texte aus den 70er und 80er Jahren, unter anderem einen hchst interessanten Essay von Hans Magnus Enzensberger („Ein bescheidener Vorschlag zum Schutz der Jugend …). Conclusions Thesis? Dieser umfasst in personal statement worker der Originalfassung 17 Seiten und ist eine regelrechte Fundgrube fr das Thema „Essay“. Nun ist der vorliegende Textausschnitt natrlich stark gekrzt und es bieten sich jetzt methodisch mehrere Mglichkeiten an writing thesis, (die im brigen auch auf andere Texte anwendbar sind): Wir knnen die gekrzten Stellen (die brigens nicht sinnvoll gekrzt werden mssen!) durch die Schlerinnen und Schler ergnzen lassen. Argumentative Essay Oil Price? Die Aufgabe erfordert logisches Denken und ein tiefes Eindringen in conclusions thesis den Text und in essay oil price die angesprochenen Zusammenhnge. Conclusions Thesis? Wir knnen dabei beispielsweise durch ein grau unterlegtes Feld deutlich machen, wie viel „Zwischentext“ wir ungefhr erwarten. Frederick Taylor Essay? Nachdem einige Schlerversionen besprochen wurden, wird der ausgelassene Textteil nachgeliefert und die Schlerinnen und Schler vergleichen ihre Ergnzungen mit dem Original – wodurch wiederum sichergestellt ist, dass auch dieser Textausschnitt aufmerksam gelesen wird.
In unserem vorliegenden Fall „Literatur in thesis der Schule“ erffnet sich noch eine weitere Mglichkeit: Die Zusatztexte von Grass, Rhmkorf und Susan Sontag gehen alle in statement social worker job eine hnliche Richtung. Conclusions? Was also spricht dagegen, diese in i want a dissertation Enzensbergers Text zu implementieren: An welcher Stelle wrden sie passen? Wo gibt es evtl. Writing? logische Brche? Wie knnten diese sprachlich und inhaltlich ausgemerzt werden? – Auch hier empfiehlt sich die Arbeit am PC und dabei das Abspeichern verschiedener Versionen und das Experimentieren mit Textbausteinen und Sprache. Best? Auch ein Blick auf die Stilebenen ist dabei angebracht: Wo gibt es zum Beispiel in thesis dieser Hinsicht Brche? Passt Rhmkorfs Begriff „Arschpauker der Poesie“ zur Sprache Enzensbergers oder Grass‘? – Darber kann man kontrovers diskutieren. Noch fr einige weitere methodische Mglichkeiten bietet sich die Arbeit am PC an, so zum Beispiel, wenn wir einen Text in educational research abstracts Abstzen ausgeben, die durcheinander gewrfelt sind. Writing Conclusions? Diese Vorgehensweise empfiehlt sich beispielsweise bei Brechts Text Betrachtung der Kunst und Kunst der Betrachtung – Reflexionen ber die Portrtkunst in essay oil price der Bildhauerei (1939). Writing Conclusions Thesis? Wir geben diesen Text in admission essay vllig vernderter Form aus und lassen ihn durch die Schlerinnen und Schler in thesis eine in best spm sich logische Form bringen (Tastenkombination Alt-Hoch-Pfeiltasten). Thesis? Wenn dies gemacht ist, knnen wir die Arbeit der einzelnen im Tauschverzeichnis verffentlichen und durch andere bewerten und kommentieren lassen. Wir knnen schlielich den greren Mittelteil eines Essays ausgeben und Anfang und Schluss ergnzen lassen, womit wir gezielt ben, wie man am Anfang die Aufmerksamkeit des Lesers bindet und am Schluss die Klammer zum Anfang schliet und evtl. Help? mit einer Pointe endet.
In Sprachuntersuchungen knnen wir pointierte Formulierungen extrahieren und / oder die verwendeten Redefiguren und Stilmittel bestimmen. Thesis? Zwar sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler nicht dem Irrtum verfallen, man msse nun mglichst viele verschiedene Redefiguren unterbringen, aber die Kenntnis einiger rhetorischer Mittel wie der Metapher, der Ellipse, des Euphemismus oder der Hyperbel ist notwendig, um einen Text analysieren und seine sprachlichen Mittel und deren Wirkung in statement social ein Beziehungsgeflecht setzen zu knnen. Conclusions? Nur wer wei, was es fr rhetorische Mglichkeiten gibt, kann diese anwenden. Einen Essay zu schreiben lernt man – dies hrt sich wie eine Binsenweisheit an statement social, – nur durch Schreiben. Conclusions? Unabdingbar sind also zeitintensive Inhalte wie Schreibwerkstatt, Schreibkonferenzen, Stufen- oder klasseninterne Korrektur-workshops etc. Essay? Der Essay ist weniger als andere Abiturinhalte durch ein starres Unterrichtsschema zu unterrichten, sondern verlangt viel Eigeninitiative von den Schlerinnen und Schlern und Flexibilitt seitens der Lehrkrfte. Vereinfacht wird das Schreiben eines Essays, wenn man die Schlerinnen und Schler von vornherein ermuntert, in thesis der Ich-Form zu schreiben, dabei zwar assoziativ vorzugehen, aber stringent zu bleiben und – auch eigentlich eine Plattitde! – auf einen passenden Titel des Essays zu achten.
Dieser schildert die Arbeit aus, gibt eine Richtung vor, bndelt die Gedanken. English Essay Spm? Daneben ist bei den Schreibbungen zu beachten, dass das Exemplarische den Vorzug vor der ausufernden Vollstndigkeit erhlt. Als Faustregel sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler Folgendes beachten: - Nominalstil und Passiv-Konstruktionen klingen oft brokratisch. -Ein Satz, der lnger als drei Zeilen ist, kann in writing thesis den meisten Fllen aufgeteilt werden; Schachtelstze sind zu vermeiden. - Abtnungspartikel wie „ja“, „eben“, „gerade“ sind oft Ausdruck von Allgemeinpltzen und knnen weggelassen oder durch przisere Ausdrcke ersetzt werden.
- Einklammerungen sollten unterbleiben. Die Planungsphase eines Abituraufsatzes zum Essay darf und muss entsprechend lang sein, der Umfang des Essays ist nicht das Entscheidende. Mit Blick auf die Probleme, die das gestaltende Interpretieren und die gestaltende Errterung gemacht haben und in frederick taylor Anbetracht dessen, dass die literarische Errterung immer nur von weniger als 2 % der Schlerinnen und Schler gewhlt wurde, erscheint die neue Form des Essays durchaus ein Gewinn – nicht zuletzt auch deshalb, weil auch beim gestaltenden Interpretieren und der Errterung zum Teil erhebliche Abweichungen zwischen Erst- und Zweitkorrektur zu verzeichnen waren. Writing Conclusions? Der Essay wird viel Ungewohntes bringen: Das Scheitern, Abbrechen, Umdenken als unverzichtbare und lehrreiche Begleiterscheinungen von Lernprozessen werden immer noch zu oft als peinliche und daher zu umgehende Sackgassen betrachtet. Taylor? Ergebnis- bzw.
Produktorientierung, Benotbarkeit und das starre Festhalten an writing, hergebrachten Leistungsmustern stehen einer allgemein notwendigen Flexibilisierung des Deutschunterrichts nicht selten im Wege. ( zit. Custom Admission? aus einem unverffentlichten Vortrag von Dr. Writing Thesis? J. Admission Help? Ulmer am 26.7.2010 in writing conclusions thesis Bad Wildbad)