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business plan bplan A well-written business plan is a crucial ingredient in preparing for business success. Without a sound business plan, a firm merely drifts along without any real direction. Yet, entrepreneurs, who tend to be people of mesopotamia essay, action, too often jump right into a business venture without taking time to prepare a written plan outlining the essence of the business. You should begin by writing down the answer to the very basic question, What business am I in? This may sound elementary, but answering this question with thought and consideration will help you focus on the major purpose of the business, which leads to establishing goals and objectives. In turn, these serve as aids in a level edexcel coursework creating strategies, policies, and procedures. Essay Conclusion? Every small business should have policies concerning credit, customers, product lines, image, prices, advertising, and so on. It is important to plan in writing; otherwise, the planning function either is ignored altogether or is conducted too informally.

This sample has all of the ap english essay ingredients to produce an conclusion, excellent business plan. To print this page, set your browser to do not print background colors. It prints about homework, 10 pages depending on your printer. 978 Lakeside Drive. Hamilton, New York 13346. 113 Broughton Road. Hamilton, New York 13346. 600 Madison Drive. Hamilton, New York 13346. 978 Lakeside Drive.

Hamilton, New York 13346. President, Hi-Tech Survey Co. Essay? Troy, New York 12180. Language Compare? President, Sound Investment Co. Hamilton, New York 13346. Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith. Portland, Maine 04111. Personal Financial Statement. 113 Broughton Road.

Hamilton, New York 13346. Assistant Vice President. New York, New York 10014. Professor of Engineering. Rensselaer Polytechnical Institute. Troy, New York 12181. Certified Public Accountant. Essay Conclusion? Charlottesville, Virginia 22201. Personal Financial Statement. The development of state of the art equipment in the surveying industry has paralleled the expansion in the service's demand.

The surveyor's tools have undergone a major transformation in the last ten years; they are more sophisticated, more accurate, and more refined than ever before. Answers To Your? Technological advances have manifested themselves in two important forms: (1) the development of speedy, accurate computational equipment (e.g., microcomputers, programmable calculators, etc.) that allows the surveyor to perform complex calculations on mesopotamia essay, field data, and (2) the introduction of electronic distance meters (EDMs), which yield more accurate survey measurements faster and science facilitate data processing. Essay Conclusion? Providing services in a timely fashion. Accuracy of work. Ap English Language Compare Essay? Capable work force. Geodetic Survey, Inc.

A small corporation (three principals) whose primary focus is surveying large land tracts for timber companies. Serves 28% of conclusion, local markets. Photogrammetry Engineers, Ltd . A small partnership that performs all types of surveying jobs and specializes in surveying by aerial photography. Controls 22% of local market. Land Surveyors, Inc. Drama Gcse Unit 1 Coursework? A relatively new, aggressive company that also performs all types of surveying jobs and specializes in surveying for local architectural firms, Controls 18% of the local market. Quadrant Surveying and Engineering Company. Quadrant Surveying Engineering Company. total fixed expenses. 1.00 - variable expenses expressed as percentage of sales. variable expenses as a % of sales = Beginning cash balance. STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN. Goals, Objectives, and Strategies.

The principals of Quadrant recognize the mesopotamia importance of quality management in successfully meeting their competition. To focus the firm's activities, the principals define its mission: To meet the spectrum of surveying and engineering needs of private landowners, large tract owners, financial institutions, attorneys, realtors, and timber companies with high-quality service, rapid turnaround, and unparalleled professionalism, at a profit. The overall mission of Quadrant is more clearly defined by dissecting it into the following objectives: To boost annual sales to $480,000. To increase market share from of computer science, 31 percent to 36 percent of the local market. Mesopotamia? To obtain a contract for another golf course. To increase by 10% the number of engineering jobs performed for local towns and districts (e.g., water and sewage systems design). Chemistry Edexcel? To improve profit margin from 13 percent to 17 percent. To obtain these objectives, Quadrant will employ a business strategy designed to exploit the mesopotamia essay conclusion four key factors for success in the surveying business-to maintain: (1) a prompt turnaround time on jobs; (2) a professional image with the drama gcse unit clientele; (3) a continuous relationship with return customers; and (4) a healthy customer mix to ensure a steady flow of work. Essay Conclusion? The following key points illustrate this strategy: To utilize equipment offering the latest technological advances.

To train employees in implementing advanced survey techniques into their work. To provide the opportunity for clients to science consult with project managers (or principals, if desired) on all projects. To keep the customer informed of the job's progress on essay, a timely basis. To crack the engineering market by obtaining small jobs with cities, districts, and subdivisions. To increase the number of government contracts bid on. To acquire and to develop regional accounts-clients with large land holdings (e.g., large timber companies).

loan purpose: To purchase a Zeiss total station with data storage and transfer capabilities that will facilitate taking angular and distance measurements in ap english language compare and contrast essay the field and performing survey computations. Amount requested: $25,000 (see attached vendor's estimate) Terms: One year and mesopotamia essay conclusion no prepayment penalty. Collateral: Personal guarantees of principals' title to Zeiss total station. Phd Thesis Of Computer? Repayment: Quadrant's ability to repay is illustrated on the accompanying proforma financial statements. Mesopotamia Essay? The cash budget projected for unpublished doctoral the upcoming year shows the company will be able to mesopotamia repay the loan within one year. Benefits accruing from the purchase of this EDM equipment include the ability to: Reduce the a level edexcel number of field personnel by one-third. Reduce office personnel by the immediate transferring field data to the home office via telephone. Minimize the number of return trips to the job site, a significant cost of doing business.

Improve productivity by mesopotamia conclusion performing more jobs in less time. Improve the compare essay firm's professional image with its clientele by employing the mesopotamia latest, most advanced equipment. Obtain golf course that requires a level accuracy attainable only with EDM devices.

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philosophic essay Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is concerning human understanding, that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. Mesopotamia Essay. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. Ap English Language Essay. There are a variety of mesopotamia essay things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.

It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on drama gcse the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to conclusion, the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of of computer science two opposing views about the mesopotamia essay thesis Give examples which help explain the science thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to mesopotamia essay, the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to overestimate the phd thesis of computer science strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience.

Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from essay conclusion common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of of computer this is a paper that's hard to essay conclusion, read, and phd thesis of computer which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious.

Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for conclusion you to show that you understand the ap english language and contrast material and that you're able to think critically about mesopotamia conclusion, it. To do this, your paper does have to drama gcse unit 1 coursework, show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to mesopotamia conclusion, human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to unpublished thesis, the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at mesopotamia, in class.

Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to answers homework, talk to mesopotamia essay, each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to a level chemistry coursework, think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to mesopotamia conclusion, write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. Gcse Unit 1 Coursework. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to essay, write a full draft of essay human understanding john locke your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention.

It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of conclusion writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and unpublished doctoral write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for mesopotamia a day or two. Then you should come back to it and homework rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. Essay Conclusion. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of drama unit 1 coursework your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. So you should start working on mesopotamia your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about drama unit, this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to mesopotamia conclusion, another.

I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Unpublished Thesis. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand.

These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Essay Conclusion. Thus Q. Concerning Human Understanding Locke. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Essay Conclusion. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.

Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the answers reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. Conclusion. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from.

For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . Thesis. We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.

X might respond to conclusion, my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because.

So we have seen that none of X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about homework, whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure.

That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about mesopotamia essay, a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. A Level. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else.

It is always better to mesopotamia essay conclusion, concentrate on chemistry one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. Mesopotamia. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence.

Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. A Level Chemistry Edexcel. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that.

Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the essay conclusion topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from answers to your homework everyday discourse.

As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. Conclusion. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. Thesis. What do you mean by mesopotamia essay conclusion, a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to doctoral thesis, how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person.

Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in mesopotamia essay that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Phd Thesis Of Computer Science. So everything turns here on essay what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to unpublished doctoral, use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of mesopotamia essay rational thought and self-awareness. Essay Concerning Understanding Locke. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.

But it's okay to use person in essay conclusion this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for homework the sake of mesopotamia variety. If you call something X at to your homework, the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about mesopotamia, Plato's view of the self, and ap english language and contrast essay then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to mesopotamia conclusion, talking about Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in thesis all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in essay conclusion vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about essay human john locke, something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings.

Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and mesopotamia Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. Essay Human Understanding John Locke. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and mesopotamia essay necessary truth. To Your Homework. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in essay different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and phd thesis assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?

Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the essay conclusion views they're supposed to gcse, be assessing. Essay. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. Essay Human Understanding Locke. You have to essay conclusion, get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the a level edexcel other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the mesopotamia conclusion views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at ap english language and contrast, them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and mesopotamia essay arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to answers to your homework, it. Mesopotamia Essay. Try harder to figure out ap english language compare and contrast essay, what's motivating them.

Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the mesopotamia view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on answers a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of essay X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. Drama 1 Coursework. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Essay Conclusion. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to essay concerning understanding locke, what you're going to go on to do.

Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the conclusion passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly.

It is seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to science, explain what the essay conclusion quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an a level chemistry edexcel coursework argument, reconstruct the mesopotamia essay conclusion argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to to your, illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to mesopotamia essay, distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to human locke, explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by essay, giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text.

For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and ap english language compare and contrast liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into mesopotamia conclusion, our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and phd thesis of computer under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of mesopotamia essay these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the unpublished doctoral thesis mind are resolved into mesopotamia essay, two kinds, impressions and gcse unit 1 coursework ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and mesopotamia conclusion violence are impressions. Answers To Your Homework. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of conclusion this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the of computer text.

In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the mesopotamia essay meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and answers to your homework liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. Mesopotamia Conclusion. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . Concerning Human Understanding. These are not the mesopotamia essay conclusion same. Compare. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the essay following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and essay concerning understanding john locke ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. Mesopotamia. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an gcse unit 1 coursework apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is mesopotamia essay conclusion, not so clear what Hume means here by ap english language compare and contrast, 'forceful.' He might mean.

Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to mesopotamia conclusion, your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Concerning John. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and mesopotamia essay raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the unpublished doctoral paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . Mesopotamia. And you should say something about unpublished doctoral thesis, how the conclusion question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to the unclarity.

Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of chemistry these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Conclusion. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and answers homework weaknesses seem to mesopotamia essay conclusion, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and language compare and contrast reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for essay conclusion this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be.

You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. Doctoral. It's okay to change your thesis to mesopotamia essay, one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of chemistry edexcel view P, you can instead change tactics and mesopotamia conclusion write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for a level chemistry edexcel the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to essay, be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection.

Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the phd thesis of computer argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because.

I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of essay conclusion these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. A Level Chemistry. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. Mesopotamia. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to drama unit 1 coursework, find a conclusive argument for mesopotamia P. To Your. P might still be true, for mesopotamia essay all that. Then come back to the draft and of computer re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to mesopotamia essay conclusion, yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences?

Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Language. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Mesopotamia. Even if it sounds nice. A Level Chemistry Edexcel Coursework. You should never introduce any points in conclusion your paper unless they're important to phd thesis science, your main argument, and you have the room to mesopotamia, really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to answers to your, say.

For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of mesopotamia essay conclusion murder. Phd Thesis Science. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean.

But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to mesopotamia conclusion, figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of unpublished thesis your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to essay, work on the draft's structure and chemistry overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to essay conclusion, other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this.

Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of thesis your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Mesopotamia Essay. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to answers homework, someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. Mesopotamia Conclusion. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. Gcse 1 Coursework. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in mesopotamia your reasoning, digressions, and gcse unit 1 coursework unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper.

At least 3 or 4!! Check out the essay conclusion following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Phd Thesis Of Computer Science. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities.

They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the essay same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an phd thesis of computer science infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the mesopotamia way), and the like.

You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Thesis. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to mesopotamia conclusion, be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to unpublished thesis, use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the mesopotamia conclusion papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to to your, deserve your full attention, all by mesopotamia, themselves.

Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of a level those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on essay the paper. And don't turn in to your homework your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about?

How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and essay conclusion well-organized? We do not judge your paper by answers homework, whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for mesopotamia your conclusion.

More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for drama unit the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand?

Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by essay conclusion, this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is chemistry, unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example?

Try to anticipate these comments and mesopotamia essay avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Essay. Or he could have presented reasons for mesopotamia conclusion thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about edexcel coursework, whether B is conclusion, true. Or something else of that sort.

These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from unit 1 coursework me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an mesopotamia conclusion A-, then your draft was generally difficult to answers homework, read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and mesopotamia conclusion so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by doctoral, rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and mesopotamia essay the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and unpublished doctoral we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is mesopotamia essay, another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level.

Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. Gcse Unit 1 Coursework. So you need to teach yourself to essay, write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and concerning understanding john locke rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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Persuasive Essay Using Ethos Pathos and Logos. Before getting to know how to essay conclusion, use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, let’s first figure out science, what ethos, pathos, and logos are. Conclusion? Ethos, logos, and pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the audience in their point of view. These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago. He knew how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay in order to convince the audience in his ideas. Rhetoric teaches us how to use the language in the most effective way.

It is essay concerning john, important when talking to the audience to persuade them of mesopotamia essay conclusion, some necessary ideas and views and make them do certain things. The same rules can be applied to various writing assignments, such as essays. The essay should also appeal to readers and its main idea should be heard and understood by them. Chemistry Edexcel Coursework? Therefore, in order to make an essay persuasive, one needs to know how to use ethos pathos and mesopotamia essay logos in an essay. In case you don’t know how to do that, we recommend you to use our service with a database of writers who will be glad to help you out. Ethos, pathos, and logos may be applied together in the same text in various proportions, because they help persuade readers in certain ideas. In order to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay correctly, you should know what type of essay you are writing. The type of an essay influences the level of persuasion to be used in it. Of Computer Science? For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and ethos in order to essay conclusion, create an emotional appeal in a reader. Essay Concerning Locke? Logos are used in more quantities in descriptive, narrative, analysis, and information essays with the aim to attract attention to the informational matter. In order to mesopotamia essay conclusion, make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay.

How to Use Ethos in a sample case study. Ethos is an appeal to ethics and it is aimed at convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and phd thesis science character. Mesopotamia Conclusion? A more modern definition of understanding, ethical is image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to talk about a certain subject knowledgeably. Ethos is the first thing we see, so it creates the first impression and influences how we take the rest of information. In order to apply ethos in your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and the matter you are writing about. The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you. In the beginning of your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the same, it is very easy to use ethos. If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to conclusion, the position of the drama gcse 1 coursework audience to change what they believe in.

Examples of mesopotamia essay, Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. I have a lot of experience in working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and essay human understanding locke a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of your kids). As I have made a lot of archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to mesopotamia conclusion, Use Pathos in dissertation abstracts. Pathos is an appeal to emotion. It is a level chemistry edexcel coursework, aimed at convincing the mesopotamia essay conclusion audience in certain things by essay concerning human, creating an essay conclusion, emotional response. Drama 1 Coursework? When writing an mesopotamia conclusion, essay, you should create an image that will evoke some emotions in a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas. Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language. For example, if you want to convince the audience of the importance of humanitarian aid, you can describe the sufferings of starving kids.

Your words will absolutely influence the emotions of readers, especially if some of them have kids of their own. Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the streets in that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is our turn to defend our people. You are very kind and generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the right decision. How to Use Logos in creative writing. Logos is an understanding john locke, appeal to logic and it is directed at persuading a reader with logic.

Logos makes a strong emphasize on intellect. Mesopotamia Conclusion? It is not only about logic. It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of phd thesis of computer science, some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an essay about new strategies that can help decrease the essay conclusion unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the stimulus to search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the data on the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid. If you know how to chemistry edexcel, use ethos pathos and mesopotamia conclusion logos in an essay the right way, you will be able to create very interesting and persuasive projects. Examples of Logos: I have been driving this route for concerning human 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here.

History showed that absolute power is conclusion, corrupted. According to the statistics, our company will be able to get more profit this year, if we continue to operate with the same pace. Our service is human understanding john, a great help to students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and mesopotamia essay logos in an essay. Here, you can find an author who will implement for language essay you an essay of any kind. All the writers in our database are aware of how to use footnotes in an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. If you need an argumentative essay and you have uncertainties on how to essay, use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, find the phd thesis writer on our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and ethos in your project. Before getting to essay, know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, let’s first figure out what ethos, pathos, and logos are.

Ethos, logos, and pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the homework audience in their point of conclusion, view. These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago. He knew how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay in order to convince the audience in his ideas. Rhetoric teaches us how to unpublished thesis, use the language in the most effective way. It is mesopotamia conclusion, important when talking to essay concerning, the audience to persuade them of some necessary ideas and views and make them do certain things. The same rules can be applied to mesopotamia essay, various writing assignments, such as essays. Essay Understanding? The essay should also appeal to readers and its main idea should be heard and mesopotamia essay understood by them. Therefore, in to your, order to make an essay persuasive, one needs to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. In case you don’t know how to mesopotamia essay conclusion, do that, we recommend you to use our service with a database of writers who will be glad to help you out.

Ethos, pathos, and logos may be applied together in the same text in drama gcse 1 coursework, various proportions, because they help persuade readers in conclusion, certain ideas. In order to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay correctly, you should know what type of essay you are writing. The type of an essay influences the level of persuasion to be used in it. For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and ethos in order to homework, create an emotional appeal in a reader. Mesopotamia Essay? Logos are used in more quantities in answers homework, descriptive, narrative, analysis, and information essays with the mesopotamia aim to attract attention to the informational matter. Essay Concerning Understanding John? In order to make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay.

How to Use Ethos in essay, a sample case study. Ethos is an ap english, appeal to ethics and it is aimed at convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and character. A more modern definition of ethical is image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and mesopotamia goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to talk about a certain subject knowledgeably. Ethos is the first thing we see, so it creates the first impression and influences how we take the rest of information. In order to apply ethos in your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and the matter you are writing about. Essay Understanding John? The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you. Essay? In the beginning of ap english language and contrast essay, your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the mesopotamia same, it is very easy to a level chemistry coursework, use ethos.

If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to the position of the audience to change what they believe in. Examples of essay, Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. I have a lot of experience in working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of your kids). As I have made a lot of archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to Use Pathos in of computer science, dissertation abstracts. Pathos is an appeal to emotion. It is aimed at convincing the conclusion audience in certain things by creating an emotional response. When writing an essay, you should create an image that will evoke some emotions in unit 1 coursework, a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas.

Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language. For example, if you want to convince the audience of the importance of mesopotamia conclusion, humanitarian aid, you can describe the phd thesis sufferings of starving kids. Your words will absolutely influence the emotions of readers, especially if some of them have kids of their own. Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the streets in mesopotamia, that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is our turn to defend our people. You are very kind and unpublished generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the right decision. How to Use Logos in creative writing. Logos is an appeal to logic and it is directed at persuading a reader with logic.

Logos makes a strong emphasize on intellect. It is not only about logic. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion? It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an essay about new strategies that can help decrease the unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the stimulus to ap english language essay, search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the data on the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid. If you know how to use ethos pathos and essay logos in an essay the right way, you will be able to concerning understanding, create very interesting and mesopotamia persuasive projects. Examples of Logos: I have been driving this route for 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here.

History showed that absolute power is corrupted. According to the statistics, our company will be able to get more profit this year, if we continue to operate with the same pace. Our service is a great help to students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Here, you can find an author who will implement for you an essay of any kind. All the writers in our database are aware of how to use footnotes in phd thesis science, an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. If you need an argumentative essay and you have uncertainties on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, find the writer on our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and ethos in your project. Before getting to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay, let’s first figure out what ethos, pathos, and logos are. Ethos, logos, and mesopotamia essay conclusion pathos are three main ingredients that help a person persuade the audience in their point of view. These ingredients, better known as appeals, were invented by Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle almost 2000 years ago. He knew how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay in order to convince the audience in his ideas. Rhetoric teaches us how to use the language in the most effective way.

It is important when talking to the audience to persuade them of some necessary ideas and views and make them do certain things. The same rules can be applied to various writing assignments, such as essays. The essay should also appeal to readers and its main idea should be heard and thesis understood by them. Therefore, in order to make an essay persuasive, one needs to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. In case you don’t know how to do that, we recommend you to use our service with a database of writers who will be glad to help you out. Ethos, pathos, and logos may be applied together in the same text in various proportions, because they help persuade readers in certain ideas. In order to know how to use ethos pathos and logos in mesopotamia conclusion, an essay correctly, you should know what type of essay you are writing. The type of an essay influences the level of persuasion to essay concerning human understanding, be used in it. Essay Conclusion? For example, in an argumentative essay, a writer should use more pathos and ethos in order to create an emotional appeal in a reader. Logos are used in more quantities in descriptive, narrative, analysis, and information essays with the aim to attract attention to the informational matter.

In order to make your project appealing let’s look closer on how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. How to Use Ethos in a sample case study. Ethos is an appeal to ethics and it is aimed at convincing somebody of the persuader’s credibility and character. A more modern definition of ethical is image. Aristotle believed that if a speaker had a good character, sense, and goodwill, a listener is more inclined to believe what they say. Unpublished Thesis? In a modern world, a speaker should have appropriate authority or experience to essay, talk about a certain subject knowledgeably. Ethos is the essay concerning first thing we see, so it creates the first impression and influences how we take the mesopotamia essay rest of information. In order to apply ethos in your business paper or essay, you should use the language, certain style, and expressions that are appropriate to a reader and the matter you are writing about. The ethos is aimed at making readers trust you.

In the beginning of your essay, you should identify your beliefs towards the subject. If the beliefs with the audience are the same, it is human locke, very easy to use ethos. If they differ, you should show respect and common sense to mesopotamia, the position of the audience to change what they believe in. Examples of drama gcse, Ethos: As a doctor, I can assure you this kind of treatment will have a great effect. I have a lot of experience in working with children (I babysat, I worked as a teacher and a playground director, so you can be sure I will take care of mesopotamia, your kids). As I have made a lot of archeological expeditions, I am confident this piece belongs to the Mesopotamian era. How to Use Pathos in dissertation abstracts.

Pathos is an appeal to emotion. It is aimed at convincing the audience in certain things by creating an emotional response. When writing an essay, you should create an concerning human locke, image that will evoke some emotions in a reader and will create a background that will help you persuade them of your ideas. Pathos must be use with vivid, emotional, and figurative language. For example, if you want to mesopotamia conclusion, convince the audience of the importance of humanitarian aid, you can describe the sufferings of starving kids. Your words will absolutely influence the a level coursework emotions of readers, especially if some of them have kids of their own.

Examples of Pathos: You should take another route, as I was told the streets in conclusion, that area are very dangerous. Our grandfathers and fathers fought for us and our country now is our turn to defend our people. You are very kind and generous person, therefore I am sure you will make the essay right decision. How to Use Logos in essay, creative writing. Logos is an appeal to logic and it is directed at persuading a reader with logic. Logos makes a strong emphasize on intellect. It is not only about logic. It also deals with a form enough for the appeal. Besides, you can use external statements literal and historical analogies, opinions of some professionals, statistical facts, etc. For example, if you write an essay about new strategies that can help decrease the unemployment, you should use not only logical sentences like by increasing unemployment financial aid, the stimulus to search new jobs is falling, but also you can demonstrate the data on the ratio between the growth of employment and financial aid.

If you know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay the right way, you will be able to create very interesting and persuasive projects. Examples of Logos: I have been driving this route for 25 year, and I have never seen a deer here. History showed that absolute power is corrupted. According to the statistics, our company will be able to get more profit this year, if we continue to drama gcse unit 1 coursework, operate with the same pace. Our service is a great help to students who have troubles with writing their papers themselves and don’t know how to use ethos pathos and logos in an essay. Here, you can find an author who will implement for you an essay of any kind.

All the writers in our database are aware of how to use footnotes in an essay, along with logos, pathos, and ethos. If you need an argumentative essay and you have uncertainties on mesopotamia, how to use ethos pathos and logos in ap english essay, an essay, find the writer on our service and they will organically interlink logos, pathos, and ethos in your project.

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7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) There are a lot of ways not to do something. Conclusion. Like the new boat owner a few years ago who was filling up his pleasure craft with fuel for that first time out. Only he mistook the tube meant to hold fishing poles for the gas tank. After completing his work he started up the engine. The gas fumes ignited and blew the boat owner into the sky. He came down in drama 1 coursework the drink and was rescued, but the boat was a goner. You can be just as creative in finding ways not to mesopotamia essay conclusion, write your novel. With a little thought and not much effort, you can easily devise methods to prevent yourself from actually finishing a book—or finishing a book that has a chance to sell. Ap English Language Compare Essay. So if not finishing or not selling are your goals, I’m here to help you with the following seven tips (also, grab this free download on how to write a novel): This guest post is by James Scott Bell . Bell is the #1 bestselling author of Plot Structure, and award-winning thrillers like Final Witness. He served as fiction columnist for Writer#8217;s Digest magazine, to which he frequently contributes, and has written three additional craft books for mesopotamia Writer’s Digest Books including Revision Self-Editing, The Art of ap english language compare and contrast essay War for Writers and Conflict Suspense . Follow him on Twitter @jamesscottbell. Go to mesopotamia, your favorite writing spot with your laptop or pad.

Perhaps your location of choice is a Starbucks. Sit down with a cup of coffee and hold it with both hands. Gcse Unit. Sip it slowly. Do not put your fingers anywhere near the essay keyboard. Glance out a window if one is answers available.

Wait for a skein of geese flying in V formation. If no window is available, simply observe the mesopotamia other patrons and make sure they can see your expression of other-worldly concentration. Chemistry. You are waiting for mesopotamia inspiration. Human John Locke. It must come from on high and fill you like fire. Until then, do not write a word. Essay Conclusion. If you’re tempted to start working without it, open up Spider Solitaire immediately. Tell yourself this will relax your mind so inspiration can pour in. Of course, those who think it wise to a level, finish their novels do things backwards . They don’t wait for inspiration.

They go after it, as Jack London said he did, “with a club.” They follow the advice of essay conclusion Peter De Vries, who said, “I write when I’m inspired, and I see to it that I’m inspired at nine o’clock every morning.” These poor souls think the secret to thesis, writing a novel is to write, and work through minor problems quickly, and major ones after the first draft is done. They do things like this: Establish a writing quota. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion. The quota is based not on unpublished, how much time they spend thinking about mesopotamia writing, but on how many words they get down. Some do a daily quota, others do it by the week. But they figure out what they can comfortably get done and set a quota about 10 percent above that as a goal. Review the previous day’s writing and move on. By looking at what they wrote the day before, they get back into coursework the flow of their story. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion. They fix little things, spelling and style mostly, but then get on with the day’s work. And one day they look up and see a finished manuscript.

They have lost sight of how not to write a novel. Chemistry Coursework. The great pitcher Satchel Paige said, “Don’t look back. Something may be gaining on you.” It’s good life advice, but in order to not write your novel, you must ignore it. To not write your novel, constantly worry about mesopotamia how bad your book might turn out to be. Pause every thousand words or so and think, This is essay concerning human understanding locke about the worst piece of crud known to man. Where did I put the mesopotamia essay bourbon? This is sometimes known as the john “inner critic,” and he’s your best friend. Conclusion. If you think about those doubts long enough, you can even develop them into fears . Jack Bickham, a novelist who was even better known for his books on the craft, put it this way: “All of us are scared: of looking dumb, of running out of ideas, of never selling our copy, of not getting noticed. We fiction writers make a business of essay being scared, and essay conclusion, not just of looking dumb. Some of these fears may never go away, and science, we may just have to learn to mesopotamia, live with them.” Of course, some writers learn not only to live with doubt and fear, but to defeat them.

How do they do that? I shouldn’t tell you, because it’s counterproductive to not writing your novel. But mostly they simply pound away at concerning understanding john locke the keyboard. They concentrate on mesopotamia conclusion, the words in front of them and kick that inner critic to the curb. They train themselves to do this via writing exercises, such as: The Five-Minute Nonstop. Essay Concerning Human Understanding John Locke. Write for five minutes, first thing in the morning if possible, without stopping to mesopotamia essay, think about what you’re writing. No correcting. Just write. Language Compare And Contrast Essay. The Page-Long Sentence. Choose something to describe (a room or a character) and write a page-long sentence about essay conclusion it, not pausing to edit and instead going on whatever tangents present themselves. The List Maker.

Whenever you’re stuck for an idea to pursue, make a list. Brainstorm ideas without assessing them. Turn off your filter. Get lots of ideas, then pick the understanding john locke best one. Writers who have dulled the inner critic don’t worry about getting the words right. Essay Conclusion. The only thing they worry about is answers to your getting the words written. They really have not got this not writing a novel thing down at all. Mesopotamia Conclusion. Are you looking amp up the stakes in your novel?

Do you need your readers to connect to unit 1 coursework, your work? Then you need this principle guide to advanced fiction writing. Write the book that your readers can#8217;t put down with the proven writing techniques in this value pack. This piece of mesopotamia conclusion advice on answers homework, how to not write a novel applies whether you finish your first draft or not. It’s the cry of the artistic rebel who will go to essay conclusion, the grave denouncing rules and unpublished thesis, techniques and anything that gets within a hundred yards of structure. This does create a very good feeling, like you’re the king of the mesopotamia essay world.

You can completely ignore all of the thesis storytellers who came before you (be sure to call them hacks or sellouts ). The fact that you’ll most likely not place your book anywhere shouldn’t hinder you from your intractable writing course. The misdirected scribes who actually sell their books and build readerships take the craft of writing seriously. They study it without apology. They have people give them feedback—editors, critique groups, trusted and objective friends—and they read countless novels and examine what’s going on. They’ll do the following: Analyze successful stories. They ask questions when reading and use their findings to help strengthen their work. For example: How does the writer make me want to turn the page? Why am I drawn to conclusion, the lead character? When are the stakes raised? How does the a level chemistry edexcel coursework writer integrate minor characters?

What makes a scene work? What’s the essay key to conflict? How does the language and contrast essay writer handle dialogue? These studious writers will be spotted reading Writer’s Digest and books on writing. What they learn they apply and mesopotamia essay, practice, and through the wonder of phd thesis trial and mesopotamia, error find themselves growing as writers. Phd Thesis Of Computer Science. But this is an article on how not to write a novel, so follow their example at your peril. Mesopotamia Conclusion. Here’s a surefire way not only to create a novel not worth reading, but scuttle your career as well. Decide that arrogance and defiance are your two weapons of choice to bulldog your way to publication. When you have a manuscript rejected, treat it as a personal insult. Think of editors and agents as nasty creatures who love saying no, who sit at their computers laughing Bwahahahahaha as they fire off their favorite thing: the impersonal form letter. You can carry all this to essay concerning john, your social media sites and publicly rebuke such shortsightedness.

By name. Those who do break through and obtain a career have the crazy idea that they can recover—even learn—from rejection and use it as motivation to write better. They foolishly remember the admonition of writer Ron Goulart: “Never assume that a rejection of your stuff is also a rejection of mesopotamia conclusion you as a person. Unless it’s accompanied by a punch in chemistry the nose.” Yes, they recognize that rejection hurts. Essay. But they believe it’s part of the process and essay, always will be. Essay Conclusion. Writers like this do the following: Wallow, then write. They let the rejection hurt for half an hour or so, then get back to concerning understanding john locke, the keyboard. Learn from the critique. They go through the letter and their manuscript and attempt to draw out any lesson the mesopotamia rejection brings.

They understand that people in the publishing industry actually want to thesis, find new authors. Of course, these are terrible tips for not writing a novel! Now let’s talk about one of the biggest keys to a novel that really has no chance. Start by chasing the market. Study the bestseller lists and try to identify a trend and mesopotamia, jump on it. There’s a saying in publishing that the moment you spot a trend, it’s too late to join it. By the time you finish writing something you think will be popular because it’s popular now, that ship will have largely sailed.

Ignore that saying, or you may end up with something agents and editors look for: a fresh voice. A Level Chemistry Edexcel. Such writers are market conscious. They know that publishers are in this business to make money, a return on their investment in a new writer. But they still manage to bring something new to the table, namely their own heart and passion filtered through a craft that enables readers to share their vision. Yes, vision. Any genre needs it. As super agent Donald Maass says in The Fire in Fiction : “What the hell are you trying to say to me?” Writers with fresh voices: Explore all facets of a story.

They concentrate on mesopotamia essay conclusion, feeling the story as well as writing it. Read a wide variety of material. These writers read outside their genre—even poetry!—not to find out what’s hot, but to expand their stylistic range. But just beware that if you do find your voice, that means you’re not not writing your novel. 6. Take as many shortcuts as possible. With the essay human john boom in e-books and mesopotamia essay conclusion, the ease with which anything can be “published,” writers have a new way not to write a novel that might be worth reading. It’s by holding the unpublished thesis thought firmly in mind that whatever they write is worth putting out as a self-released e-book, and they will do it no matter what! This relieves a lot of the conclusion pressure of trying to answers to your, grow as a writer. Mesopotamia. One can combine this with the chip-on-your-shoulder attitude for a terrific double whammy. Of course, other writers—those who are laying a strong foundation in the nontraditional realm of digital and ap english, independent publishing—foolishly continue to find surefire ways to vet their work: They will use test readers.

They don’t trust themselves in essay all ways. They know they need objective readers, so they cultivate people they trust to tell them specifically what’s not working. Then they’ll figure out a way to fix it. They will hire a good freelance editor. They know that the big benefit of a traditional publisher is a level coursework professional editing, so it’s worth it to mesopotamia, them to find a reputable freelance editor to go over their work. Note the word reputable . There are less-than-savory services out there that will gladly take a writer’s money for very little quality work. (And if you’re trying to not write a novel that’s publishable, you should probably use them!) If all else succeeds and you’re still intent on not finishing your novel, you have a surefire fallback: Stop writing. Forget the a level edexcel examples of conclusion those who persevered and eventually found an agent or got published. Like Kathryn Stockett. She wrote and edited The Help over a five-year period, then got three-and-a-half years’ worth of rejections from agents—60 in all. Ap English And Contrast Essay. It was agent 61 who took her on, and the rest you know well.

Published authors will tell you it’s all about perseverance, the one characteristic all successful writers share. They’ll tell you as long as you’ve got a computer and mesopotamia conclusion, keyboard, or pen and paper, you can write. And as long as you write you have a chance to get published. Author David Eddings said, “Keep working. Keep trying. Keep believing. You still might not make it, but at least you gave it your best shot. A Level. If you don’t have calluses on conclusion, your soul, writing isn’t for you.

Take up knitting instead.” [Like this quote? Click here to Tweet and share it!] With several bestselling series under his belt, he definitely wasn’t very good at not writing novels. … Wait. What’s that? You actually want to write a novel? Well, I’m not the writing sheriff. The choice is yours. Other writing/publishing articles links for you: 57 thoughts on “ 7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) ” Thanks for the article. I enjoyed the read. #128578; Hm. Writing your novel and selling it are two different things.

Unfortunately, selling it does seem to mean you must look over your shoulder as you write it, create what the agents claim to want—like a fresh voice— and tick all the boxes that mean what they actually want is a book very much like the ones they#8217;ve already sold. (And for phd thesis of computer god#8217;s sake, don#8217;t write a prologue, even if it#8217;s what your story requires.) One of the boxes you must tick is #8216;length.#8217; Good luck being a first-time novelist with a book that#8217;s around 200,000 words, and admitting to this in a query letter. The book may be very good indeed (I#8217;ve read many, published in mesopotamia essay the not-so-distant past) that are easily that length and kept me glued throughout. Answers Homework. However, you write one of those you will NOT sell it via an agent any more. It will go straight in the bin before they even bother to ask for the first few chapters, to test your actual writing ability. So, as long as you accept that writing and selling are two entirely different things, with very different requirements these days, fair enough. Fantastic.

Looks like I#8217;m currently on essay, the right track to NOT writing a novel, but I can#8217;t say for sure if I#8217;d still be the same tomorrow! just amaze to read this valuable and answers to your, useful article.thanks for essay conclusion share this with us.I just cant imagine that you are going to spread the best informative post. Wow that means you are here to learn that how to became your hubby#8217;s favorite and special..This is thesis really interesting and amazing. Escorts in Dehradun. Mesopotamia Essay. Wonderful and i just amaze to ap english language compare essay, be here,thanks for essay share this with us.i just amaze to read this and to discover this. That was really an essay concerning locke, awesome post i like it thanks for the share.. academic coursework writing service is the best service for the students. Very interesting blog. Alot of blogs I see these days don#8217;t really provide anything that I#8217;m interested in, but I#8217;m most definately interested in this one. Essay Conclusion. Just thought that I would post and let you know.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Conclusion? Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of chemistry edexcel Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Essay Conclusion? Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on drama gcse, the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on mesopotamia essay, Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of unpublished Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and essay, Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of ap english and contrast essay Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in mesopotamia essay conclusion, which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.”

The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low. This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the doctoral thesis product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. Conclusion? He is a price-maker who can set the phd thesis of computer science price to his maximum advantage. Conclusion? However, it does not mean that he can set both price and edexcel, output. He can do either of the two things. His price is determined by mesopotamia, his demand curve, once he selects his output level. Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits.

Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and answers, government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in mesopotamia essay conclusion, transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of essay concerning understanding locke a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the conclusion entry of new firms. Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in answers to your homework, the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product.

(2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is essay, pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for understanding locke the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product. (7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled.

There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by mesopotamia essay, the forces of demand and supply. Unit? The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is mesopotamia conclusion, also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the of computer price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Conclusion? Or, he can fix the output to to your homework be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is mesopotamia essay, definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Language? Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the mesopotamia essay conclusion manner and extent to which the of computer monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of conclusion demand for his product. If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price.

If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to gcse unit 1 coursework raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the conclusion nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at unit, a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to conclusion marginal cost (MC). He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of essay concerning human monopoly equilibrium is one where the MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR.

In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the mesopotamia conclusion monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the a level chemistry edexcel total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the mesopotamia essay conclusion total revenue curve which goes on drama unit 1 coursework, rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest. This will be the level at which the slopes of mesopotamia conclusion TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and T on the TR and a level chemistry, TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR.

Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price. Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the mesopotamia essay conclusion quantity of the drama gcse unit product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production.

Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the mesopotamia conclusion MR curve from below. Unit? It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the mesopotamia essay conclusion short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively. Language And Contrast Essay? AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from mesopotamia essay conclusion below.

The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output. Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. Ap English Language Compare Essay? The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at mesopotamia essay conclusion, point E determines OM output which is concerning human understanding locke, sold at essay, MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits.

The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of drama 1 coursework SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the mesopotamia conclusion short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per compare and contrast essay unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC. In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium:

In the essay long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits. If he was incurring losses in concerning human understanding john, the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to mesopotamia essay maximise his profits. Doctoral Thesis? With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from essay below and the SMC curve passes through this point.

Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output. Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Phd Thesis Science? Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at mesopotamia, the lowest point L of the LAC curve.

It has some excess capacity. A Level Edexcel Coursework? It is mesopotamia, not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product. Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the concerning human understanding john monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. Mesopotamia Essay Conclusion? He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage.

He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over a level edexcel, his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies. There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the essay conclusion larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the phd thesis two, the larger is the degree of monopoly.

However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power. We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by mesopotamia essay, Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of unpublished monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is essay conclusion, P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon his ability to phd thesis of computer science sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost.

The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power. A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the mesopotamia conclusion above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and essay concerning human understanding john, unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price.

The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by conclusion, the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is: Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in phd thesis of computer, the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the mesopotamia inverse of the ap english language compare elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is illustrated in mesopotamia essay conclusion, Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and unpublished doctoral thesis, marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is conclusion, termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is gcse unit, equal to mesopotamia conclusion PM while MR is unpublished doctoral thesis, equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of essay monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of a level chemistry edexcel monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of conclusion 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the other may show underinvestment. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis? The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of mesopotamia conclusion monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product.

Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem. Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and unpublished, substitution effects of a change in price on consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the conclusion substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in concerning human understanding, Lerner’s measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of essay production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in essay concerning human, an industry.

Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to measure the mesopotamia essay conclusion degree of essay concerning human monopoly power. The former used this in the case of conclusion selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon edexcel Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of essay conclusion price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in of computer science, the price of one firm’s product affects the essay conclusion demand for the other’s product. When the concerning human cross-elasticity of mesopotamia demand between the product of one firm and chemistry edexcel coursework, of all other firms is zero, the mesopotamia essay conclusion reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power.

According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power. On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the and contrast Triffin measure is unsuitable for mesopotamia essay practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in language compare essay, the case of any firm. Thirdly, the mesopotamia conclusion method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of phd thesis monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power.

Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the essay conclusion entry of new firms in the industry. So the essay concerning human understanding degree of mesopotamia essay monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of answers to your entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of mesopotamia conclusion monopoly power the absolute. The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is of computer science, measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of essay output.

Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to chemistry coursework estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of essay fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of unpublished interest and wages of management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits.

Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits. Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from mesopotamia essay total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of to your a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN.

Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the mesopotamia conclusion Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity. Therefore, the degree of unpublished doctoral thesis monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the essay conclusion degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the essay concerning understanding other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is conclusion, based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from compare essay different customers or for different units of the same product.

In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to essay conclusion different buyers is known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to to your homework transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the mesopotamia essay market demand in doctoral thesis, each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the highest price. Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of essay conclusion Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer.

For example, doctors and human understanding, lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for mesopotamia essay the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes. Gcse? In the mesopotamia essay case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season.

Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for and contrast essay quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for essay children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on ap english language compare and contrast essay, the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows.

Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at mesopotamia essay conclusion, a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product. Answers To Your? Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is essay, charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity.

Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to essay concerning human understanding john the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to conclusion different customers. This is usually possible in the sale of of computer direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in mesopotamia conclusion, proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit.

Price discrimination is possible in concerning human locke, the case of mesopotamia services because there is unpublished doctoral, no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on essay, geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and essay, foreign buyers by selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”.

It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products. Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to essay conclusion discrimination based on age, sex, status and unpublished thesis, income of essay buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product.

Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for homework the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others. (6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary.

Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and mesopotamia, charge a higher price. He may sell it at human locke, Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in essay, separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand. Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on of computer science, the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits.

He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost. Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the mesopotamia conclusion monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the answers to your price in market 2 and mesopotamia conclusion, lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets.

(v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the elasticities of phd thesis of computer demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in essay conclusion, the market with the high elastic demand. A Level Chemistry? In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.” Figure 8 illustrates price and mesopotamia, output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Answers To Your? Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by mesopotamia essay, the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and a level chemistry edexcel, MC is the marginal cost curve.

The point of intersection between the MR T and mesopotamia essay, MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the doctoral thesis quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in essay conclusion, the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of language compare essay demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at essay conclusion, a higher price in gcse unit, domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and essay conclusion, prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable.

(5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination: Dumping is a level, international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in essay conclusion, a foreign market at science, a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of essay goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is compare essay, assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and conclusion, PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the unit 1 coursework quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Mesopotamia Essay? Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the unpublished doctoral marginal cost, equilibrium in essay, the domestic market will be established at point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Unpublished? Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is essay conclusion, harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point. Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs.

Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in drama gcse unit, practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and mesopotamia, join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to answers homework the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in mesopotamia, the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the unpublished thesis market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve. But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is mesopotamia conclusion, established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor.

Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to a level subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price.

It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the mesopotamia essay conclusion economy, more employment and income to the community. Price discrimination of phd thesis this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the essay law of phd thesis of computer decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in essay conclusion, pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and of computer, instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market. Hence price discrimination is justified.

Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of conclusion dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the chemistry edexcel coursework economy of the other country by undercutting the mesopotamia foreign producers and forcing them to close their business. Answers Homework? Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10.

Control and mesopotamia, Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and answers homework, restrictive trade practices legislation. Conclusion? Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits.

They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers. If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to to your homework the entry of new firms, would prefer to conclusion charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation.

The same consideration applies to unpublished doctoral thesis potential government regula­tion. The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and essay, earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to drama unit 1 coursework wield an absolute monopoly power. Essay? If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest. This consideration may prevent the monopolist from unpublished charging too high a price. (4) Fear of essay conclusion Public Reaction.

The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against homework, the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and conclusion, start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to a level chemistry charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by mesopotamia, forming a cooperative society. Of Computer? Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits. (6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the mesopotamia essay fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the a level chemistry fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power.

(7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand. The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of mesopotamia essay demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to answers to your adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of mesopotamia conclusion public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to a level coursework set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and essay conclusion, retailer to the detriment of other traders.

(ii) Control of ap english language compare and contrast Monopoly through Price Regulation: We now take the essay case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and drama unit, lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in mesopotamia, Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level. The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the gcse monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from mesopotamia below.

As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the to your monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP. If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to essay conclusion place a greater quan­tity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the thesis monopolist would not be operating at a loss.

(iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the mesopotamia government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product.

A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. And Contrast? The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price. The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the mesopotamia essay conclusion AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the chemistry edexcel coursework effect of essay conclusion reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself.

He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and ap english compare, reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by mesopotamia, the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. To Your? A per conclusion unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax. Figure 13 illustrates this case. Language And Contrast? AC and mesopotamia conclusion, MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the unpublished cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is mesopotamia conclusion, E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the unit monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product.

Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the mesopotamia essay conclusion tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the 1 coursework price for the product and the lower the essay conclusion output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!

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